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Women Gladiators: Sensational Spectator Sport For Roman Audiences

Women Gladiators: Sensational Spectator Sport For Roman Audiences

It may all have started when female sword fighters performed at funerals in the very early days of Rome. There may also be some connection between women participating in chariot racing and women...
Mercator world map Public Domain and Gerardus Mercator of Rupelmonde at the age of 62 by Frans Hogenburg (1574) (Public Domain)

16th-Century Maps Reveal 1800 BC Ice Free Greenland And Antarctica

There is a large body of maps of the Americas which cannot be explained by known explorations. Mercator’s 1569 World Map shows all of Greenland without ice at its coasts. Finaeus’ 1531 World Map...
The Oath of Catiline, by Joseph-Marie Vien (1809) (Public Domain)

Catiline’s Ambition: Born And Bred For Roman Consulship

L. Sergius Catilina (106 to 62 BC), or Catiline, who eventually led a failed revolt against the Roman Republic, embodied the virtues and vices of members of his class and generation. Catiline was...
Loch of Stenness (edwin/Adobe Stock)

Revisiting The 6,000-Year-Old Submerged North Doggerland Culture Of Tu-lay

A recent find off the northernmost coast of the British Isles, provides evidence that the extreme flooding that occurred in ancient times on a worldwide scale, also affected this region...
Deriv: Ptolemy as Pharaoh in the British Museum (Stella / CC BY-SA 4.0) and Ptolemy I, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Ptolemy Soter’s Strategy: Becoming Pharaoh And A God Of Egypt

Ptolemy I, one of the surviving generals of Alexander the Great, became satrap and eventually pharaoh of Egypt, but he had to employ spin doctors to recreate an impressive ancestry related to...
Queen Katherine Of Aragon – Old And Deformed Wife Of Henry VIII?

Queen Katherine Of Aragon – Old And Deformed Wife Of Henry VIII?

In 1519, the French King Francis I quipped that Henry VIII had “ an old deformed wife, while he himself is young and handsome ”. It is generally assumed that the French King was referring to...
Roman legionaries building a defense wall (Travel Drawn/ Abode Stock)

Richborough Fort, Ruins Of The Gateway To Roman Britain

Two thousand years ago the Richborough Roman Fort stood on the Isle of Thanet, off the coast of Kent, separated from the mainland by the strategically important Wantsum Channel. This area of land,...
Clockwise from top: Pyramid of the Magician at Uxmal, iguana at Uxmal, Kabáh Arch, the Palace at Dzibilchaltún, all set over the rising sun captured at Yaxuna. (Image Deriv: Courtesy © Dr Jonathon Perrin)

Revisiting Stephens and Catherwood’s 19th-Century Maya Discoveries

Between 1839 and 1841 two intrepid explorers; John Lloyd Stephens, an American writer, diplomat, and traveler, teamed up with English artist and architect Frederick Catherwood to visit 44 Maya sites...
Hooded Roman soldier on a horse ( Ramy / Adobe Stock)

Procopius, Fourth Century AD Spy Who Became a Roman Emperor

Although its golden age had long passed, the Roman Empire was still a prosperous and militarily formidable state at the turn of the fourth century. The famed Pax Romana – the century between the...
Leiston Abbey cloister garth at dawn (Eebahgum /CC BY-SA 4.0)

Leiston Abbey 13th-Century Pirating Monks Of Rural Suffolk

The original Leiston Abbey was once the home of pirating monks, but today the ruins of the second Leiston Abbey, showcasing some of the finest and most complete monastic remains in the south of...
Anglo Saxon Chieftain( Archivist /Adobe Stock)

Bretwaldas: The Early Anglo-Saxon Kings Of Post-Roman Britain

Current literature on the early medieval period in England and the Anglo-Saxons in general, supporting an outdated curriculum taught 40 years ago, postulating that waves of Anglo-Saxons warriors...
Horned warrior mercenary ( AlainAlexander/Adobe Stock)

Where Did The Shardana, Warrior Mercenaries Of Egypt Originate From?

A 13th-century BC inscription of Ramesses II reads: “ The unruly Sherden whom no one had ever known to combat, they came boldly (sailing) in their warships from the midst of the sea, none being able...
Souls of Heroic Warriors in Polynesia ( adrenalinapura/ Adobe Stock)

Hawaii: Paradise Location Of Homeric Mythical Elysian Fields

Over centuries explorers as well as ethnologists noting the myths, legends, customs and folklore of the cultures native to the Pacific Ocean islands, have accumulated enough evidence to attest to...
Grand Canyon of the Colorado River (1892–1908) by Thomas Moran, illustrator of John Powell’s book (Public Domain) and Pharaoh on a Throne (amith/ (Adobe Stock)

Ancient Egyptians In America’s Grand Canyon – Astounding Evidence Or Elaborate Cover-Up?

Although not numerous, some people claim that Egyptians once inhabited the Americas. Some stories are too outrageous to believe, yet they are still interesting historical accounts. None more than the...
Generated Egyptian female queens (SunnyS/ Adobe Stock)

Egypt’s Famous Female Pharaohs And Not-So-Famous Female Rulers Resurrected

Cleopatra, Nefertiti, Hatshepsut are all ancient Egyptian female rulers, immortalized in films, in books, and on television. They celebrate the great achievements of powerful women in history who...
Hengist by John Speed's  "Saxon Heptarchy" (1611) (Public Domain)

Revolt Of The Angle, Saxon and Jute Mercenaries In Britannia

Three Saxon keels slipped effortlessly through the waves towards the Kentish coast. The white cliffs glided past as the rowers, 20 on each side kept a constant rhythm. The shallow-draft oaken hull,...
Preview, Hopi, Creation Myths, Evolution, Climate Change, Aztecs, Flood, Feather Serpent, Quetzalcoatl, Tawa, Mega-Disasters, Sipapu, Grand Canyon, Spider Grandmother

Hopi Oral Traditions Of Creation Parallel Evolutionary Adaptation To Climate Change

Various spiritual traditions hold different views of how the Earth and humankind came to exist. There is the Christian view, mentioned in the Bible, Gospels not included in the Bible, and other...
John Dee demonstrating an experiment before Queen Elizabeth I (Wellcome Images/ CC BY-SA 4.0)

John Dee’s Enochian Magick: Language Of The Angels or Encrypted Spy Talk?

Enochian Magick is a complex system of occult practices and rituals that have their roots in the 16th-century writings of the Elizabethan scholar John Dee (1527 – 1608) and his associate, Edward...
Pirates in a tavern (smile4u/Adobe Stock)

Fine Dining With The Pirates Of The Caribbean

Caribbean cuisine was certainly founded by pirates. Images of filibusters as ragamuffins gnawing bugs in some cell, or perhaps scraping the bottom of some barrel adrift in the Caribbean, hunting for...
Roma emperor walking along a colonnade (Giordano Aita/ Adobe Stock)

The Men Who Ruled The World From Rome

The history of the classical Roman State spanned more than 12 centuries. It extended from the foundation of Rome in 753 BC to the fall of the western part of the Empire in 476 AD. The rich legacy...
Third Century Crisis Invasion of the Goths ( Kristian/ Adobe Stock)

Goths On The Move: The Third Century Barbaricum Invasion of the Roman Empire

In 238 AD, after at least two generations with no mention of the Goths, denizens of the territories above the Roman province of Dacia (modern Romania), showed the first signs of a barbarian...
What Happened To The Coveted Spear Of Destiny?

What Happened To The Coveted Spear Of Destiny?

Throughout the centuries, Christianity has been a fiery topic. Some debate about its true origins and connections to other religions, while others look at the malfeasances of some of its religious...
The Egyptian Expedition under the orders of Bonaparte, painting by Léon Cogniet (early 19th century) (Public Domain)

Egyptomania: Multitasking Mummies Of The 19th Century

Napoleon Bonaparte’s 18th-century Campaign in Egypt represented a pivotal moment in the quest for knowledge about the history of the ancient Egypt, by then a forgotten civilization that flourished...
Iliad, Book VIII, lines 245–53, Greek manuscript, late fifth, early sixth centuries AD. (Public Domain)

The Iliad: Overlapping Mycenaean Bronze Age And Dark Age Allegories

Known as the “Age of Heroes,” the Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BC) was immortalized in the Homeric epics by such noteworthy characters as the imperious commander-in-chief “king of men” Agamemnon...

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