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A cowboy boot in a horse’s stirrup.

Giddyap! How the Stirrup Revolutionized Horseback Riding and Helped Build Empires

Seemingly simple, yet oh so significant - the stirrup is an invention that changed the history of the world. The emergence of the stirrup revolutionized the way horses were ridden and consequently re-shaped transportation. In fact, this invention played an important role in some key historical events and empire building.

This simple device consists of a pair of frames or rings attached to the saddle of a horse (or other equine animals) via straps, and served to hold a rider’s feet in place. Although the horse was domesticated more than 5 millennia ago, the stirrup was only invented at a much later point. The emergence of the stirrup revolutionised the way horses were ridden, changed the way wars were fought, and even gave rise to a new empire.

‘Wild horse catchers’ by James Walker

‘Wild horse catchers’ by James Walker. ( Public Domain )

Pre-Stirrup Horse Transport

The horse is widely believed to have been first domesticated on the steppes of Central Asia between the 5th and 4th millennia BC. It has been suggested that the first domesticated horses originally served as food rather than as transport. Soon, however, horses began to be used as a means of transportation. The bridle was then invented, so that the horse could be ‘steered’, as well as the saddle, which enabled the rider to mount the horse more comfortably.

Mughal style painting of a white horse with a saddle and bridle.

Mughal style painting of a white horse with a saddle and bridle . ( Public Domain ) The stirrup was created later than these inventions.

Prior to the invention of the stirrup, horseback riding, especially for combat, was a much more difficult task. Alexander the Great’s companion cavalry, for example, rode into battle wielding heavy spears in their hands and kept themselves balanced on their horses by gripping them with their thighs. The ancient Egyptians, on the other hand, found a way round this problem by using chariots. Nevertheless, these war machines were much less agile than riding a horse.  

Hyksos chariot painting. Egyptians found a way around the difficulty of staying on a horse by using chariots.

Hyksos chariot painting. Egyptians found a way around the difficulty of staying on a horse by using chariots. ( Public Domain )

Early Representations of Stirrups

The stirrup, on the other hand, was only created around the 3rd century AD. Sculptures from India dating to the 3rd century AD, for example, depict bare-footed horse riders using small stirrups that fit round their big toes.

Example of a clay horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups. This example is from the Kofun period (6th century) in the history of the Japanese empire.

Example of a clay horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups. This example is from the Kofun period (6th century) in the history of the Japanese empire. ( Public Domain )

Another example of an early stirrup comes from an engraving in carnelian from Kushan. In this engraving, a rider is shown using hook-style/platform stirrups, which are L-shaped pieces of wood or horn that served as a kind of foot-rest. Actual stirrups from this early part of this device’s history have not yet been found as they were probably made of material that would not normally survive in the archaeological record.

Kushan divinity Adsho (carnelian seal). British Museum.

Kushan divinity Adsho (carnelian seal). British Museum. ( Public Domain ) This is one of the oldest known depictions of stirrups.

The modern form of the stirrup, i.e. those that enclose the feet, only began to emerge during the 4th century AD, and the Chinese are often credited with its invention. A ceramic horse figurine from a Jin Dynasty tomb near Nanjing, for example, depicts the enclosed stirrups that are still being used today. Evidence for the use of such stirrups during this period has also been found in other Chinese tombs, as well as in tomb murals and figurines from the Korean peninsula.

Jin (265-420 AD) iron stirrups.

Jin (265-420 AD) iron stirrups. (Gary Lee Todd/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

How Stirrups Played a Role in Historic Events

Interestingly, stirrups were not used in Europe until the 8th century. It was the stirrup that made possible the development of the Medieval European heavy cavalry, one of the distinct features of that historical period. Without the stirrup, the Middle Ages in Europe would have been very different, especially in the field of warfare which could have led to very different shaping of the various empires.

 European, 10th century stirrup (CC BY SA 3.0) and Bayeux Tapestry - Scene 51 (extract)- The Battle of Hastings: Norman knights and archers.

European, 10th century stirrup ( CC BY SA 3.0 ) and Bayeux Tapestry - Scene 51 (extract)- The Battle of Hastings: Norman knights and archers . ( Public Domain )

The Mongol Empire Built on Stirrups?

Another instance of the profound effects the stirrup had on the world can be found back at the Central Asian steppes. During the early 13 th century, Genghis Khan succeeded in unifying the various tribes of Mongolia, thus becoming the sole ruler of the Mongol plains. This allowed Genghis Khan and his successors to go on conquering neighboring lands, thus expanding the Mongol Empire.

One of the key factors that allowed the Mongols to build their vast empire during the 13 th century was the excellent use of cavalry in their armies. The Mongols were renowned as superb horsemen, and their armies consisted mainly of horse archers. The use of horses gave the Mongols the ability to move from one area to another quickly, thus allowing them to take their enemies by surprise. The stirrup enabled a skilled Mongol horseman to maintain his stability on a galloping horse without the use of his hands, which were used to fire arrows at the enemy. Thus, the stirrup enabled the Mongols to build an empire that stretched from China in the east to Central Europe in the West.

Mongol cavalrymen.

Mongol cavalrymen. ( Public Domain )

As an important asset for the Mongols, high quality stirrups would have been much valued. In 2016, a pair of metal stirrups was discovered in the grave of a Mongolian woman dating to the 10 th century AD. The use of this material meant that the stirrups produced were much more durable (as compared, for instance, with leather ones), and could last for a much longer period of time. Additionally, it has been remarked that the pair of stirrups that were unearthed are in such a well-preserved condition that they could still be used today.

Mongolian horse stirrups.

Mongolian horse stirrups. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

To conclude, the stirrup is perhaps an invention that is often overlooked. Nevertheless, it is thanks to this simple device that certain important moments in history were made possible and certainly gave the Mongols a huge advantage which they used in effectively in expanding their empire.

Top image: A cowboy boot in a horse’s stirrup. Source: Public Domain

By Wu Mingren

References

curiosity.com, 2017. The Stirrup Has Guided The Course Of Human History. [Online]
Available at: https://curiosity.com/topics/the-stirrup-has-guided-the-course-of-human-history-curiosity/

Derby, D., 2001. How the Stirrup Changed Our World. [Online]
Available at: http://strangehorizons.com/non-fiction/articles/how-the-stirrup-changed-our-world/

Inglis-Arkell, E., 2017. The Mongols built an empire with one technological breakthrough. [Online]
Available at: https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/05/the-mongols-built-an-empire-with-one-technological-breakthrough/

Jeff, 2003. The invention and influences of stirrup. [Online]
Available at: https://web.archive.org/web/20081203175410/http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-07/21/content_70825.htm

Szczepanski, K., 2017. Invention of the Stirrup. [Online]
Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/invention-of-the-stirrup-195161

The Equinest, 2013. The History of Stirrups. [Online]
Available at: http://www.theequinest.com/history-stirrups/

Comments

Quote" build an empire that stretched from China in the east to Central Europe in the West." Unquote

In fact, the Mongol Empite extended well into South East Asia, as far south as Java in modern day Indonesia.

Dear people,
what you academics fail to recognize is that the saddle tree had to be invented first to hang stirrups from, the simple pads used earlier would just turn over with out the tree. A hole cut in a leather or rawhide strap will do for a stirrup, it it is hung from a tree, some Argentines ride barefoot, with just their toes in a loop, i believe. Just another case of failing to redognize the obvious.
John McGrew

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