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Ancient Rome

Welcome to Ancient Origins section on Ancient Rome, one of the most fascinating and influential civilizations in human history. From its legendary founding in 753 BC to its collapse in 476 AD, Rome left an indelible mark on Western culture, politics, law, and architecture, shaping our modern world in countless ways.

Whether you are a student, a history enthusiast, or simply curious about this ancient civilization, this section has hundreds of articles that will take you on a journey through the rise and fall of Rome, its legendary emperors, its iconic landmarks, and its enduring legacy.

Explore the stories of Rome's legendary figures, marvel at the grandeur of its monumental buildings, and learn about the customs, beliefs, and achievements of the Romans, who created one of the most enduring and influential civilizations of all time. Join us as we delve into the world of Ancient Rome, where the past meets the present and the legacy of Rome lives on.

History & Chronology of Ancient Rome

The Roman Kingdom

The Roman Republic

The Punic Wars

The Roman Empire

The Fall of Rome

Byzantium

Roman Figures

Roman Emperors

Other Roman Leaders

Roman Gods & Religion

Other Roman Figures

Roman Places

Roman Cities

Roman Temples & Monuments

Roman Baths & Villas

Roman Entertainment Venues

Roman Life

Roman Society & Culture

Roman Entertainment & Leisure

Roman Politics, Government & Law

Roman Art, Music, Literature

Roman Architecture & Engineering

Roman Colonization & Expansion

Roman Military & Warfare

Roman Economy & Trade

Roman Artifacts

Roman Technology

Roman Writings

Other Artifacts

Historical illustration of the great Roman Empire. Source: Roman /Adobe Stock

Imperium Sine Fine, Frontiers, and City Walls: Early Rome to the Emperor Aurelian

The Latin word imperium originally meant power, specifically the power to command armies, and also civilians. Such power was conferred by law on a Roman official, such as a consul, a praetor, or any...
Archaeologists found a gold earring hidden inside a jar that had been placed in a wall at the Iron Age settlement called Tossal de Baltarga. 	Source: Marco Ansaloni/Frontiers

Devastating Iron Age Hillfort Fire Linked to Hannibal

A violent blaze, possibly linked to the Carthaginian army crossing the Pyrenees to fight the Romans, flared up so quickly people couldn’t save their animals or their valuables. A Snapshot of Ancient...
Representational image of an ancient Roman historian. Source: Ian / Adobe Stock

Imaginary Roman Emperors Grace the Pages of the Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta presents a carnival of outlandish stories that have puzzled historians for centuries. But these bizarre fabrications are not limited to irrelevant details. The ancient collection...
Painting Captives in Rome, by Charles Bartlett. Source: Public Domain

Understanding the Harsh Realities of Roman Slaves (Video)

​ The Roman slave's existence was a harrowing one, devoid of freedom or dignity. Despite the grandeur of the Roman Empire , its foundation rested upon the backs of these oppressed individuals, whose...
Karanis, Egypt. Source: Einsamer Schütze/CC BY-SA 4.0

New Revelation Ancient Greco-Roman Karanis Endured to 7th Century

New research has revolutionized our understanding of Karanis, an ancient Greco-Roman agricultural settlement nestled in the Fayum oasis of Egypt. Contrary to prior assumptions of abandonment in the...
Side view of the colossal head of Decebalus. Source: Cazanele Dunării/CC BY-SA 4.0)

The Colossal Head of Decebalus, King of the Dacians

In the heart of Rome stands a 38-meter tall (124.67ft) tall column built in the 2nd century AD. Carved in low relief spiralling around the monument are over 2600 figures, representing the combatants...
The cover of a 1698 edition of the Historia Augusta from Ettal Abbey, Germany. Right: a page of the earliest manuscript. Source: Public Domain, Public Domain

History or Hoax: Dissecting the Intriguing Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta stands as a paradox within the annals of Roman historiography, a perplexing blend of fact and fiction, offering both insights into the imperial era and challenges to historical...
The Tyrian Purple pigment found at Carlisle Cricket Club	Source:  Wardell Armstrong

A Regal Hue: The Discovery of Tyrian Purple in Roman Carlisle

In an extraordinary archaeological find at Carlisle, UK, researchers have unearthed what appears to be Tyrian Purple, a rare and historically significant pigment once reserved for the highest...
"Certosa di Pavia - Medallion at the base of the facade". The Latin inscription tells that these are Romulus and Remus.           Source: Public Domain

The Seven Legendary Kings Who Built Rome (Video)

The era of Rome's seven kings , spanning from approximately 753 BC to 509 BC, marks a critical period in the city's history. Romulus , the legendary founder, is said to have established Rome's...
Initial stage dry stone structure of Roman ruins found at Chamboret, France.	Source: Inrap

Roman Ruins and Evidence of Neolithic Settlement Unearthed from France

Archaeologists in France have recently uncovered a fascinating site offering a glimpse into multiple layers of history. Nestled near the village of Chamborêt, approximately 12 miles (19.3 km) north...
Left; The excavation site at Somma Vesuviana. Credit: Right; Augustus Caesar of Prima Porta statue. 	Source: Left; University of Tokyo Foundation.  Right; Vatican Museums/CC BY-SA 4.0

Villa Where Augustus Died May Have Been Excavated Near Mount Vesuvius

Archaeologists from the University of Tokyo has excavated what may be the remains of the Villa of Augustus, a first-century grand estate that was built near Somma Vesuviana, a town located in the...
Sex scene in ancient fresco in Pompeii in the Casa delle Lupanare. Source: BlackMac/Adobe Stock

Roman Brothels, the Controversial Ancient Societal Hubs

Ancient Rome had a very vibrant and complex society, where prostitution played a major role. It was legal, licensed, and very common. In fact, brothels occupied a unique and controversial position in...
Roman Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Source: Sergey Yarochkin/Adobe Stock

Six Things That Made the Colosseum Unique (Video)

The Colosseum , an architectural marvel in Rome, is renowned for its unique features that set it apart from other ancient structures. Its oval design, accommodating over 50,000 spectators , ensured...
Helen and Paris fresco, indicated in a Greek inscription placed between the two figures with his other name ‘Alexandros’.                Source: Archaeological Park of Pompeii

Spectacular New Frescoes Uncovered in Pompeii

A spectacular banqueting room with elegant black walls, decorated with mythological characters and subjects inspired by the Trojan War, is one of the rooms recently brought to light during the...
The underside of the Etruscan lamp of Cortona. Source: Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca e della città di Cortona/DeGruyter, edited by R. Alburz

Bronze Lamp Revealed as Dionysus Cult Object in Cortona Italy

An interesting new study has challenged the previous estimations surrounding a beautiful bronze lamp unearthed in a ditch near Cortona, central Italy. Using literary sources and iconographic evidence...
Gold Roman 'Armilla' Bracelet dates back to 2,000 years.      Source: Portable Antiques Scheme/CC BY 4.0

12-Year-Old Boy Finds Gold Roman 'Armilla' Bracelet During a Walk

Nearly 2,000 years after it was laid in a field, a Roman-era bracelet has been unearthed by a 12-year-old boy during a routine walk in England’s Sussex region. This exceptionally rare gold Roman...
Representational image of the ancient Greek philosopher and biographer Plutarch. Source: Eduardo / Adobe Stock

The Legacy of Plutarch: One of the Greatest Minds of Ancient Greece

Plutarch is a historical figure whose name is a fundamental part of the world’s shared history, standing as one of antiquity's most revered biographers and philosophers. He was born around 46 AD in...
Representative image of the Roman cavalry. Source: furyon / Adobe Stock  By Aleksa Vučković

Roman Cavalry, the Backbone of Rome’s Great Expansion

In ancient times, no army was truly powerful without a cavalry . The equivalent of modern tanks and special forces, cavalrymen were the terror of the ancient battlefields. A force to be reckoned with...
Septimius Severus bust sculpture, former Roman emperor. Generative AI. Source: NorLife/Adobe Stock

Septimius Severus and the Severan Dynasty, In Brief (Video)

Septimius Severus , the African emperor, ascended to power in 193 AD, heralding the inception of the Severan dynasty , a transformative epoch in Roman history. His reign, characterized by relentless...
Building materials piled up ready for installation at the Regio IX part of Pompeii.     Source: Pompeii Sites

Preserved Building Site at Pompeii Reveals Roman Construction Techniques

New information relating to Roman construction techniques is emerging from the ongoing excavations at the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. In the rooms of the ancient domus in Region IX, insula 10...
Left: The tiny votive axes were probably utilized within an ancient ceremonial practice.  Right: Rolled up lead Roman curse tablets found at the site. Source: Red River Archaeology Group

Remarkable Roman Villa Unearthed from a Bronze Age Site in England

A Bronze Age site in England, housing a ‘richly decorated Roman villa’ from a later period, has revealed a bounty of artifacts and architectural evidence, which includes aisled buildings adorned with...
Replica of the Hallaton Helmet. The original is set to be displayed at the Harborough Museum in Leicestershire, UK.	(Inset; the original helmet) Source: Harborough Museum (Inset; CC BY 2.0)

The 2,000-year-old Hallaton Helmet Is Reborn in Beautiful Reproduction

A Roman cavalry helmet, initially called a ‘rusty bucket’ has been replicated to show its former glory, 23 years after the original was found in a field in Leicestershire, England. The Hallaton...
Engraving of Cornelius Tacitus from a drawing by Brooke. Source: Public domain

Tacitus: The Master Chronicler of Ancient Rome

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, better known as just Tacitus, is arguably one of the most illustrious figures in Roman historiography. His writings cast a profound light on the intricacies and nuances of...
Representational image of Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Source: JUSTIN / Adobe Stock

Maximinus Thrax's Turbulent Rule: Rome's Unsuccessful Giant Soldier-Emperor

The history of the vast and powerful Roman Empire was defined by its many rulers. After all, talented emperors were responsible for maintaining that venerable and very complex social machine. However...

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