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Ancient Rome

Welcome to Ancient Origins section on Ancient Rome, one of the most fascinating and influential civilizations in human history. From its legendary founding in 753 BC to its collapse in 476 AD, Rome left an indelible mark on Western culture, politics, law, and architecture, shaping our modern world in countless ways.

Whether you are a student, a history enthusiast, or simply curious about this ancient civilization, this section has hundreds of articles that will take you on a journey through the rise and fall of Rome, its legendary emperors, its iconic landmarks, and its enduring legacy.

Explore the stories of Rome's legendary figures, marvel at the grandeur of its monumental buildings, and learn about the customs, beliefs, and achievements of the Romans, who created one of the most enduring and influential civilizations of all time. Join us as we delve into the world of Ancient Rome, where the past meets the present and the legacy of Rome lives on.

History & Chronology of Ancient Rome

The Roman Kingdom

The Roman Republic

The Punic Wars

The Roman Empire

The Fall of Rome

Byzantium

Roman Figures

Roman Emperors

Other Roman Leaders

Roman Gods & Religion

Other Roman Figures

Roman Places

Roman Cities

Roman Temples & Monuments

Roman Baths & Villas

Roman Entertainment Venues

Roman Life

Roman Society & Culture

Roman Entertainment & Leisure

Roman Politics, Government & Law

Roman Art, Music, Literature

Roman Architecture & Engineering

Roman Colonization & Expansion

Roman Military & Warfare

Roman Economy & Trade

Roman Artifacts

Roman Technology

Roman Writings

Other Artifacts

Roman Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Source: Sergey Yarochkin/Adobe Stock

Six Things That Made the Colosseum Unique (Video)

The Colosseum , an architectural marvel in Rome, is renowned for its unique features that set it apart from other ancient structures. Its oval design, accommodating over 50,000 spectators , ensured...
Helen and Paris fresco, indicated in a Greek inscription placed between the two figures with his other name ‘Alexandros’.                Source: Archaeological Park of Pompeii

Spectacular New Frescoes Uncovered in Pompeii

A spectacular banqueting room with elegant black walls, decorated with mythological characters and subjects inspired by the Trojan War, is one of the rooms recently brought to light during the...
The underside of the Etruscan lamp of Cortona. Source: Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca e della città di Cortona/DeGruyter, edited by R. Alburz

Bronze Lamp Revealed as Dionysus Cult Object in Cortona Italy

An interesting new study has challenged the previous estimations surrounding a beautiful bronze lamp unearthed in a ditch near Cortona, central Italy. Using literary sources and iconographic evidence...
Gold Roman 'Armilla' Bracelet dates back to 2,000 years.      Source: Portable Antiques Scheme/CC BY 4.0

12-Year-Old Boy Finds Gold Roman 'Armilla' Bracelet During a Walk

Nearly 2,000 years after it was laid in a field, a Roman-era bracelet has been unearthed by a 12-year-old boy during a routine walk in England’s Sussex region. This exceptionally rare gold Roman...
Representational image of the ancient Greek philosopher and biographer Plutarch. Source: Eduardo / Adobe Stock

The Legacy of Plutarch: One of the Greatest Minds of Ancient Greece

Plutarch is a historical figure whose name is a fundamental part of the world’s shared history, standing as one of antiquity's most revered biographers and philosophers. He was born around 46 AD in...
Representative image of the Roman cavalry. Source: furyon / Adobe Stock  By Aleksa Vučković

Roman Cavalry, the Backbone of Rome’s Great Expansion

In ancient times, no army was truly powerful without a cavalry . The equivalent of modern tanks and special forces, cavalrymen were the terror of the ancient battlefields. A force to be reckoned with...
Septimius Severus bust sculpture, former Roman emperor. Generative AI. Source: NorLife/Adobe Stock

Septimius Severus and the Severan Dynasty, In Brief (Video)

Septimius Severus , the African emperor, ascended to power in 193 AD, heralding the inception of the Severan dynasty , a transformative epoch in Roman history. His reign, characterized by relentless...
Building materials piled up ready for installation at the Regio IX part of Pompeii.     Source: Pompeii Sites

Preserved Building Site at Pompeii Reveals Roman Construction Techniques

New information relating to Roman construction techniques is emerging from the ongoing excavations at the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. In the rooms of the ancient domus in Region IX, insula 10...
Left: The tiny votive axes were probably utilized within an ancient ceremonial practice.  Right: Rolled up lead Roman curse tablets found at the site. Source: Red River Archaeology Group

Remarkable Roman Villa Unearthed from a Bronze Age Site in England

A Bronze Age site in England, housing a ‘richly decorated Roman villa’ from a later period, has revealed a bounty of artifacts and architectural evidence, which includes aisled buildings adorned with...
Replica of the Hallaton Helmet. The original is set to be displayed at the Harborough Museum in Leicestershire, UK.	(Inset; the original helmet) Source: Harborough Museum (Inset; CC BY 2.0)

The 2,000-year-old Hallaton Helmet Is Reborn in Beautiful Reproduction

A Roman cavalry helmet, initially called a ‘rusty bucket’ has been replicated to show its former glory, 23 years after the original was found in a field in Leicestershire, England. The Hallaton...
Engraving of Cornelius Tacitus from a drawing by Brooke. Source: Public domain

Tacitus: The Master Chronicler of Ancient Rome

Publius Cornelius Tacitus, better known as just Tacitus, is arguably one of the most illustrious figures in Roman historiography. His writings cast a profound light on the intricacies and nuances of...
Representational image of Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Source: JUSTIN / Adobe Stock

Maximinus Thrax's Turbulent Rule: Rome's Unsuccessful Giant Soldier-Emperor

The history of the vast and powerful Roman Empire was defined by its many rulers. After all, talented emperors were responsible for maintaining that venerable and very complex social machine. However...
The huge Etruscan tomb that has been recently discovered at San Giuliano Necropolis, Marturanum Park, Italy.  Source: Superintendency of Archaeology, Fine Arts and Landscape for the Province of Viterbo and Southern Etruria

Huge Etruscan Tomb Found Hidden in Plain Sight at San Giuliano Necropolis

The world’s most expansive and complex Etruscan necropolis continues to produce surprises, revealing more details about the powerful civilization that preceded the Romans as the dominant force in...
left obverse and right reverse of the silver denarius from Rome, dated 113-112 BC. Source: American Numismatic Society

Coin Reveals Ancient Rome’s Fight Against Voter Intimidation

David B. Hollander /The Conversation This silver denarius, minted over 2,000 years ago , is hardly the most attractive Roman coin. And yet, the coin is vital evidence for the early stages of a...
The collection of 16 mostly Roman offerings found at the sacred spring site in Anglesey. Source: Museum Wales

Roman Offerings at Sacred Spring Whisper of the Druids’ Last Stand

In a significant archaeological find, a collection of sixteen ancient artifacts dating back to the Iron Age and Roman periods has been officially declared treasure by H.M. Senior Coroner for North-...
Detail of the Roman cellar found in Frankfurt. Source: Thomas Flügen / Archäologisches Museum Frankfurt

A Roman Wooden Cellar Unearthed in Frankfurt's Nida

In the heart of modern Frankfurt, Germany, a new window into the past has been uncovered. The recent archaeological discovery of a full, well-preserved Roman wooden cellar in the ancient Roman city...
The hoard of ancient weapons found near Hrubieszów, Poland. Source: B. Bartecki /©Lublin Provincial Conservator of Monuments

Weapons of Germanic Tribes from Roman Era Discovered in Poland

In the now serene landscapes of Hrubieszów, on the eastern border of Poland, a remarkable discovery has recently emerged, casting new light on the region's ancient history. The find of likely...
Close up of the statue of Carcalla at The Casa del Labrador in Aranjuez, Spain. Source: Manel/ CC BY-ND 2.0

Emperor Caracalla: Was He as Bad as Everyone Says?

History remembers Caracalla, who reigned over Rome from 198 to 217 AD as one of the empire’s most despotic rulers. He started his reign by killing his brother and massacring his followers before...
Worst Roman emperors of the Roman Empire. Source: Public Domain, Public Domain, Egisto Sani/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, Public Domain

The 8 Worst Roman Emperors and Their Dastardly Deeds

The history of the Roman Empire is filled with tales of grandeur, conquests, and the rise and fall of mighty rulers. From a small city-state, it rose in power, became a kingdom, a republic, and...
Archaeologists survey the area near Trafalgar Square, London.        Source: © Archaeology South-East

Saxon ‘London’ Was Bigger Than Previously Thought

In a remarkable archaeological endeavor, the team from Archaeology South-East, a division of the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has made groundbreaking discoveries beneath the National Gallery at the...
Artifacts and medallion of Emperor Caracalla found in the Roman tombs in Bulgaria. Source: Veliko Tarnovo History Museum

Rare Medallion of Emperor Caracalla Among Valuable Finds from Nova Varbovka

The Veliko Tarnovo Regional History Museum has presented to the media the valuable finds from the Roman graves discovered last December near the village of Nova Varbovka in Strazig. The rich grave...
Building blocks reclaimed from the ruins of the Roman legion base at Tel Megiddo.                Source: IAA

Archaeologists Unearth Largest Roman Legion Base in Israel

Archaeologists excavating at the foot of Tel Megiddo in Israel have uncovered “the largest Roman base” ever discovered in the country. Here, during the Roman occupation of Judea, a colony of highly-...
The Roman-era egg was cast into a watery pit, possibly as part of a funeral rite. Source: Oxford Archaeology.

1,700-year-old Egg Found at Roman Era Site Still Has Liquid Contents

An extraordinary discovery in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, has stunned archaeologists and scientists worldwide: a 1,700-year-old egg, is the only intact specimen from Roman Britain, and now considered...
Left; Cimex lectularius, bedbug. Center; Wing casings (elytra) of Oryzaephilus surinamensis found at Vindolanda. Right: Almost complete wing casing (elytron) of Aphodius sp. Source: Left; Daktaridudu/CC BY-SA 4.0, Center and Right; Katie Wyse Jackson/Vindolanda Trust

Romans Look to Have Brought Bedbugs to Britain

In a fascinating addition to our understanding of ancient Britain, recent archaeological work at Vindolanda, a key Roman garrison south of Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland, has unearthed evidence...

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