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Ancient Rome

Welcome to Ancient Origins section on Ancient Rome, one of the most fascinating and influential civilizations in human history. From its legendary founding in 753 BC to its collapse in 476 AD, Rome left an indelible mark on Western culture, politics, law, and architecture, shaping our modern world in countless ways.

Whether you are a student, a history enthusiast, or simply curious about this ancient civilization, this section has hundreds of articles that will take you on a journey through the rise and fall of Rome, its legendary emperors, its iconic landmarks, and its enduring legacy.

Explore the stories of Rome's legendary figures, marvel at the grandeur of its monumental buildings, and learn about the customs, beliefs, and achievements of the Romans, who created one of the most enduring and influential civilizations of all time. Join us as we delve into the world of Ancient Rome, where the past meets the present and the legacy of Rome lives on.

History & Chronology of Ancient Rome

The Roman Kingdom

The Roman Republic

The Punic Wars

The Roman Empire

The Fall of Rome

Byzantium

Roman Figures

Roman Emperors

Other Roman Leaders

Roman Gods & Religion

Other Roman Figures

Roman Places

Roman Cities

Roman Temples & Monuments

Roman Baths & Villas

Roman Entertainment Venues

Roman Life

Roman Society & Culture

Roman Entertainment & Leisure

Roman Politics, Government & Law

Roman Art, Music, Literature

Roman Architecture & Engineering

Roman Colonization & Expansion

Roman Military & Warfare

Roman Economy & Trade

Roman Artifacts

Roman Technology

Roman Writings

Other Artifacts

: Roman inflation played an important part in the fall of the Roman Empire.		Source: photoguns / Adobe Stock

What Led to the Fall of Rome, History’s Mightiest Empire? (Video)

What Led to the Fall of Rome, History’s Mightiest Empire? (Video) The decline and fall of Rome was not a swift cataclysm but rather a gradual unraveling marked by numerous challenges. The symbolic...
The only known Lorica Squamata model legionary armor in the world, discovered at Satala Ancient City,	Source: Turkish Ministry of Culture/via IHA

One-of-a-Kind Roman Lorica Squamata Armor Restored

One-of-a-Kind Roman Lorica Squamata Armor Restored In an unprecedented conservation triumph, the only known example of Roman legionary Lorica Squamata armor, dated to be around 1500 years old, has...
Top view of the world’s oldest liquid wine

World’s Oldest Wine Found - Imbued with a Cremated Roman Aristocrat!

A n extraordinary discovery was made in a Roman tomb in Carmona, Spain. Among the skeletal remains of six individuals, researchers found a glass funerary urn containing a reddish liquid. At over 2,...
Rare Roman Artifacts Unearthed Beneath an Ancient Well

Rare Roman Artifacts Unearthed Beneath an Ancient Well

Located near the Temple of Hercules and in a sacred area of the site, archaeologists excavating a well in the ancient city of Ostia Antica, about 15 miles southwest of Rome, were surprised to find...
Roman Baths in Bath, England. The house is a well-preserved Roman site for public bathing.

The Roman Baths Had Ancient Healing Powers

The history of the Roman Baths in Bath, England, unveils a narrative rich in intrigue and cultural significance. Bath , known for its elegant Georgian architecture today, has a murky origin tale...
Representation of Roman generals

Late Republican Era Rome's Influential Generals (Video)

The transformation of Rome during the Late Republican era was marked by a series of significant changes, particularly in its military and political landscape. From 133 BC to 27 BC, Rome experienced a...
Vesuvius eruption devastating Pompeii

New Narrative of Pompeii Survivors Revealed Through Records

Steven L. Tuck /The Conversation On Aug. 24, in AD 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted, shooting over 3 cubic miles of debris up to 20 miles (32.1 kilometers) in the air. As the ash and rock fell to Earth, it...
Roman Baths in Bath, England.

New Study Reveals Healing Properties of Water at Roman Baths in England

Few surviving Roman installations are as popular in England as the Roman Baths , which can be found in the appropriately named city of Bath, Somerset . Nearly 2,000 years after these public...
Archaeologists at a re-erected Roman milestone on the Golan Heights Roman highway.

Key 2nd Century Roman Highway Exposed in Golan Heights

More than 18 centuries ago, the Romans built a two-lane highway that cut across the southern section of an area that is today known as the Golan Heights, which sits on the border between Israel and...
Bikini girls mosaic, Villa del Casale, Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy

How Did Busy Ancient Greeks and Romans Keep Fit and Healthy?

By Konstantine Panegyres /The Conversation Many people today worry about how to find time to keep fit and healthy in the midst of their busy lives. Believe it or not, but this was also a problem in...
Tourist Defaces Roman Wall in Herculaneum

Dutch Tourist Defaces Ancient Roman Villa in Herculaneum

A 27-year-old tourist from the Netherlands has been accused of defacing a frescoed wall in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum, located near Naples, Italy. The vandalism occurred at a historic site...
Agora of Nicopolis

Temple of the Emperors Uncovered in the Roman Agora at Nicopolis

In the autumn of 2023, archaeologists began an exciting project to uncover the ancient marketplace, or ‘Agora’ of Nicopolis in Greece. What they uncovered far surpassed what they had anticipated. The...
Ancient Roman Maritime Pavilion

Ancient Roman Maritime Pavilion Excavated off Italy’s Coast

A significant archaeological discovery has been made off the coast of Campo di Mare, Italy, revealing a submerged Roman-era structure that once formed part of a grand villa complex. This find is the...
Roman Centurion

The Grand Strategy of Defense of the Roman Empire

If one was to briefly define the expression of ‘grand strategy’, it would likely be described as the integration of a state's overall political, economic, and military aims to preserve its long-term...
AI image of the Roman Republic

Visualizing Republican Rome's Splendor (Video)

Republican Rome , emerging from the ashes of monarchy, left a tangible legacy in the landscape of ancient Italy. With the expulsion of kings in 509 BC, Rome sought to carve its own identity. Temples...
AI image of the Roman Republic. Source: Alfaza503/Adobe Stock

Visualizing Republican Rome's Splendor (Video)

​ Republican Rome , emerging from the ashes of monarchy, left a tangible legacy in the landscape of ancient Italy. With the expulsion of kings in 509 BC, Rome sought to carve its own identity...
Left, Childlike graffiti found at Insula dei Casti Amanti site, Pompeii.              Source: Pompeii Sites

Children’s Graffiti Reveals Witnessing of Gladiatorial Violence in Pompeii

Alongside the impressive frescoes found during excavations at Pompeii, some less impressive, but perhaps more telling art has been discovered. Children’s graffiti has been found that depicts scenes...
Mosaic depicting the Muse, Calliope, excavated in Side, Turkey.      Source: Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Culture and Tourism

2,200-Year-Old Mosaic of the Muse Calliope Exposed in Turkey

Archaeologists exploring the site of an ancient Greek settlement in southern Turkey unearthed a beautifully preserved mosaic floor dating back to the second century BC. What made this mosaic floor...
AI image of a young Roman man.     Source: Arceli / Adobe Stock

Beyond the Cut: The Historical and Cultural Significance of Hairstyles and Barbershops

The pandemic in 2020, which shuttered hairdressers for most of the year, led to numerous unexpected hair trends such as buzzcuts and fringes. The much-derided mullet also made an appearance. This...
Historical illustration of the great Roman Empire. Source: Roman /Adobe Stock

Imperium Sine Fine, Frontiers, and City Walls: Early Rome to the Emperor Aurelian

The Latin word imperium originally meant power, specifically the power to command armies, and also civilians. Such power was conferred by law on a Roman official, such as a consul, a praetor, or any...
Archaeologists found a gold earring hidden inside a jar that had been placed in a wall at the Iron Age settlement called Tossal de Baltarga. 	Source: Marco Ansaloni/Frontiers

Devastating Iron Age Hillfort Fire Linked to Hannibal

A violent blaze, possibly linked to the Carthaginian army crossing the Pyrenees to fight the Romans, flared up so quickly people couldn’t save their animals or their valuables. A Snapshot of Ancient...
Representational image of an ancient Roman historian. Source: Ian / Adobe Stock

Imaginary Roman Emperors Grace the Pages of the Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta presents a carnival of outlandish stories that have puzzled historians for centuries. But these bizarre fabrications are not limited to irrelevant details. The ancient collection...
Painting Captives in Rome, by Charles Bartlett. Source: Public Domain

Understanding the Harsh Realities of Roman Slaves (Video)

​ The Roman slave's existence was a harrowing one, devoid of freedom or dignity. Despite the grandeur of the Roman Empire , its foundation rested upon the backs of these oppressed individuals, whose...
Karanis, Egypt. Source: Einsamer Schütze/CC BY-SA 4.0

New Revelation Ancient Greco-Roman Karanis Endured to 7th Century

New research has revolutionized our understanding of Karanis, an ancient Greco-Roman agricultural settlement nestled in the Fayum oasis of Egypt. Contrary to prior assumptions of abandonment in the...

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