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Ancient Rome

Welcome to Ancient Origins section on Ancient Rome, one of the most fascinating and influential civilizations in human history. From its legendary founding in 753 BC to its collapse in 476 AD, Rome left an indelible mark on Western culture, politics, law, and architecture, shaping our modern world in countless ways.

Whether you are a student, a history enthusiast, or simply curious about this ancient civilization, this section has hundreds of articles that will take you on a journey through the rise and fall of Rome, its legendary emperors, its iconic landmarks, and its enduring legacy.

Explore the stories of Rome's legendary figures, marvel at the grandeur of its monumental buildings, and learn about the customs, beliefs, and achievements of the Romans, who created one of the most enduring and influential civilizations of all time. Join us as we delve into the world of Ancient Rome, where the past meets the present and the legacy of Rome lives on.

History & Chronology of Ancient Rome

The Roman Kingdom

The Roman Republic

The Punic Wars

The Roman Empire

The Fall of Rome

Byzantium

Roman Figures

Roman Emperors

Other Roman Leaders

Roman Gods & Religion

Other Roman Figures

Roman Places

Roman Cities

Roman Temples & Monuments

Roman Baths & Villas

Roman Entertainment Venues

Roman Life

Roman Society & Culture

Roman Entertainment & Leisure

Roman Politics, Government & Law

Roman Art, Music, Literature

Roman Architecture & Engineering

Roman Colonization & Expansion

Roman Military & Warfare

Roman Economy & Trade

Roman Artifacts

Roman Technology

Roman Writings

Other Artifacts

The hoard of ancient weapons found near Hrubieszów, Poland. Source: B. Bartecki /©Lublin Provincial Conservator of Monuments

Weapons of Germanic Tribes from Roman Era Discovered in Poland

In the now serene landscapes of Hrubieszów, on the eastern border of Poland, a remarkable discovery has recently emerged, casting new light on the region's ancient history. The find of likely...
Close up of the statue of Carcalla at The Casa del Labrador in Aranjuez, Spain. Source: Manel/ CC BY-ND 2.0

Emperor Caracalla: Was He as Bad as Everyone Says?

History remembers Caracalla, who reigned over Rome from 198 to 217 AD as one of the empire’s most despotic rulers. He started his reign by killing his brother and massacring his followers before...
Worst Roman emperors of the Roman Empire. Source: Public Domain, Public Domain, Egisto Sani/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, Public Domain

The 8 Worst Roman Emperors and Their Dastardly Deeds

The history of the Roman Empire is filled with tales of grandeur, conquests, and the rise and fall of mighty rulers. From a small city-state, it rose in power, became a kingdom, a republic, and...
Archaeologists survey the area near Trafalgar Square, London.        Source: © Archaeology South-East

Saxon ‘London’ Was Bigger Than Previously Thought

In a remarkable archaeological endeavor, the team from Archaeology South-East, a division of the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has made groundbreaking discoveries beneath the National Gallery at the...
Artifacts and medallion of Emperor Caracalla found in the Roman tombs in Bulgaria. Source: Veliko Tarnovo History Museum

Rare Medallion of Emperor Caracalla Among Valuable Finds from Nova Varbovka

The Veliko Tarnovo Regional History Museum has presented to the media the valuable finds from the Roman graves discovered last December near the village of Nova Varbovka in Strazig. The rich grave...
Building blocks reclaimed from the ruins of the Roman legion base at Tel Megiddo.                Source: IAA

Archaeologists Unearth Largest Roman Legion Base in Israel

Archaeologists excavating at the foot of Tel Megiddo in Israel have uncovered “the largest Roman base” ever discovered in the country. Here, during the Roman occupation of Judea, a colony of highly-...
The Roman-era egg was cast into a watery pit, possibly as part of a funeral rite. Source: Oxford Archaeology.

1,700-year-old Egg Found at Roman Era Site Still Has Liquid Contents

An extraordinary discovery in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, has stunned archaeologists and scientists worldwide: a 1,700-year-old egg, is the only intact specimen from Roman Britain, and now considered...
Left; Cimex lectularius, bedbug. Center; Wing casings (elytra) of Oryzaephilus surinamensis found at Vindolanda. Right: Almost complete wing casing (elytron) of Aphodius sp. Source: Left; Daktaridudu/CC BY-SA 4.0, Center and Right; Katie Wyse Jackson/Vindolanda Trust

Romans Look to Have Brought Bedbugs to Britain

In a fascinating addition to our understanding of ancient Britain, recent archaeological work at Vindolanda, a key Roman garrison south of Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland, has unearthed evidence...
AI image of Emperor Augustus also known as the founder of the Roman Empire.  Source: Nevio/Adobe Stock

How Did the Pax Romana Start and End? (Videos)

The Pax Romana, a remarkable era of relative peace in the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 180 AD, marked a pivotal period that shaped the empire's trajectory. Emerging from the political turmoil of the...
Left; One of the Herculaneum scrolls that are being deciphered. Right; Text from the Herculaneum scroll          Source: Vesuvius Challenge

AI Tool Deciphers Herculaneum Scroll, and It’s All About Pleasure!

A team of student researchers have combined 3D-mapping and AI to decipher a Greek scroll that was encased in ash during the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The philosophical musing reveals Greek...
Bas relief at Nagsh-e-rostam showing the investiture of Ardashir I, Province du Fars, Iran. Source: Fabienkhan/CC BY-SA 2.5

The Parthian Empire: Rome’s Greatest Enemy (Video)

The Parthian Empire, successor to the Persian legacy, emerged in 238 BC, springing from the Parni tribe's conquest of Parthia in modern-day northeastern Iran. Although initially subdued by the...
The last battle of the Ostrogoths and the end of their influence was fought on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius in the Battle of Mons Lactarius. Painting from 1890, by Alexander Zick.  Source: Captain Blood/ Public domain

Shaping European History- What Made the Goths Unique (Video)

The Goths , pioneers in military strategy, left an indelible mark on European history. Introducing cavalry to warfare, they confronted the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD, a pivotal...
Rome, Italy: The Roman Forum. Source: krivinis/Adobe Stock

Roman Origins: Did Romulus Really Found Rome? (Video)

The legendary founding of Rome revolves around two key figures, Romulus and Aeneas , whose stories intertwine with myth, geology, and archaeology. According to tradition, Romulus , saved by shepherds...
The Roman city at Silchester with grid road system and building locations map overlaid. Source: University of Reading

Beneath Roman Britain - An Iron Age Settlement Is Revealed At Silchester

Five decades on from the start of an archaeological dig by the University of Reading, the findings of the investigation will be brought to the public, showcasing the incredible discoveries from...
The remains of the Roman triumphal arch found in Serbia.     Source: Serbia Archaeological Institute.

Emperor Caracalla’s Triumphal Arch Unearthed in Serbia

A lesser-known fact about Serbia is that 17 Roman emperors were born in its territory, with Central Serbia being under Roman rule for 800 years. Evidence of this history was unearthed in December,...
Representation of Roman god Bacchus, renowned lover of Roman wine.

Toasted Bread and Walnuts: The Secret to Sophisticated Roman Wine Revealed

Of the many cultural and physical remnants left behind by the Romans, along with everlasting concrete, a love of wine also endures. When the Roman poet Horace contemplates death, he was more...
Conservator Bethan Bryan with the Roman arm guard. Source: Duncan McGlynn / National Museums Scotland

“Absolutely Amazing” Roman Arm Guard Pieced Together After 1,800 Years

Over 100 years ago, a Scot unearthed over 100 fragments of metal which he thought comprised a Roman chest guard. Now, National Museums Scotland have reconstructed the artifact and discovered that it...
An ancient Roman gladiator. Source: Luis Louro /Adobe Stock

The Reality of Gladiator Life and Their Training (Video)

In the world of gladiators , once perceived as either heroic warriors or despised villains, their existence is marked by brutality and ritualized training rather than the romanticized notions of...
Various shots of the mosaic now confirmed dated to the 5th century at Chedworth Roman Villa. Source: Stephen Haywood/Ian Shaw/ © National Trust Images

Roman Mosaic Date Brightens Up Britain’s Dark Ages in More Ways Than One

Rome wasn’t built in a day, but it’s popularly believed that its fall to ‘barbaric’ forces by the beginning of the 5th century, plunged all of Europe into a ‘Dark Age’, where towns and villas...
The Gracchi, by Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume (19th century). Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Source: Mary Harrsch/ CC BY NC-SA 2.0

The Gracchi: How Two Brothers Altered the Course of Roman Politics

The Late Republic was in ruins. Civil war was common. Violence broke out between political factions. Bloody slave revolts erupted. As Rome’s old republican institutions imploded, the Republic began...
Left; the reconstruction imae of Feb=nsatantion Man. Right; The first evidence of Roman-British crucifixion has been found in Fenstanton, Cambridgeshire, England. The heel of a man found with an iron nail pounded through his heel bone was clear evidence of crucifixion. Source: Left; Impossible Factual/BBC, Right; Albion Archaeology

Face of the Only Victim of Roman Crucifixion Found in Britain is Revealed

Experts have successfully reconstructed the face of a man who was a victim of Roman crucifixion, a discovery hailed as "almost unique" by Corinne Duhig, a bone specialist from Cambridge University...
Temples of Poseidon and Hera in the archaeological site of Paestum, Campania, Italy.	Source: Nido Huebl/Adobe Stock

Two Exceptional Greek Temples Uncovered in 2,600-Year-Old City of Poseidonia Paestum

Archaeologists have unearthed two “exceptional” temples in the historic ancient city of Poseidonia Paestum, a settlement in Magna Graecia on the southern coast of Italy. Constructed in the Doric...
Two of the mummies found in rock-cut tombs in Al-Bhanasa. Source: Egypt Ministry of Tourism & Antiquities

Heart-pounding Tomb Discovery In Egypt Shakes Up Ptolemaic/Roman Traditions

Archaeologists in Egypt have made a heart-pounding discovery in Al-Bhanasa, Minya, unveiling a significant slice of ancient history. This latest find includes rock-carved graves from the Ptolemaic...
An aerial image depicting the interior walls of a Roman temple found in Spello, Italy, which experts believe to be an ancient pagan temple of fourth-century Italy and the late Roman Empire. Source: Douglas Boin/Saint Louis Univiersity

Pagan Temple Shifts Rome's Narrative of Rapid Conversion to Christianity

The ruins of an ancient pagan temple under a parking lot in central Italy 70 miles (112.65 km) north of Rome, sheds light on the cultural shift during the transition from Roman imperial theology to...

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