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Ancient Egypt

Welcome to the section on Ancient Egypt, a civilization that flourished for over 3000 years in the northeastern corner of Africa. Ancient Egypt is known for its rich cultural and artistic heritage, innovative technology, and remarkable achievements in fields such as architecture, agriculture, medicine, and mathematics.
The civilization emerged around 3100 BC, when King Menes unified Upper and Lower Egypt and established the first dynasty. Over the centuries, Egypt saw the rise and fall of great pharaohs, the construction of grand monuments such as the pyramids and temples, and the development of a complex system of writing and religion.
Ancient Egypt was a hierarchical society with a strict social structure, where the pharaoh was considered a god-king who ruled with absolute power. The people of Egypt believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, and their religious practices were intertwined with everyday life.
The achievements of Ancient Egypt are still visible today in the grand monuments, artworks, and artifacts that have survived the passage of time. From the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza to the hieroglyphs and papyrus scrolls that record their history, Ancient Egypt continues to captivate and inspire people from around the world.
The Old Kingdom, which lasted from around 2686 BC to 2181 BC, was marked by the construction of iconic pyramids and the development of hieroglyphic writing. The Middle Kingdom, from 2055 BC to 1650 BC, saw a resurgence of art and culture, as well as the expansion of trade and conquest.
The New Kingdom, from 1550 BC to 1069 BC, was the most prosperous and powerful period of ancient Egyptian history, marked by the rule of famous pharaohs such as Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and Tutankhamun. This era saw the construction of grand temples and monumental architecture, and the development of a complex religious and social system.
After the New Kingdom, Egypt experienced a period of decline and foreign rule, with the country being conquered by the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. Despite this, ancient Egyptian culture continued to influence and inspire subsequent civilizations, and its legacy can still be seen in art, literature, and architecture today.
The articles you will find here explore the wonders of Ancient Egypt, and you will learn about the history, culture, and achievements of one of the most fascinating civilizations in human history.

AI portrait of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh king. Source: Andrea Raffin/Adobe Stock

Why Did Egyptian Pharaohs Have Five Names?

Ancient Egyptian pharaohs were not merely rulers; they were considered divine beings, the living embodiments of gods on Earth. Their names were imbued with profound significance, reflecting their...
Representative image of Egyptian blue pigment. Source: Pattadis / Adobe Stock

Tracing the Legacy of Egyptian Blue: From Ancient Artifacts to Modern Insights

Egyptian blue, known in the scientific community as calcium copper silicate, has come to be recognized as a pioneering feat of human creativity. With origins speculated to precede 3000 BC, Egyptian...
Milky Way and pink light over mountains. Source: den-belitsky/Adobe Stock

The Hidden Role of the Milky Way in Ancient Egyptian Mythology (Study)

Ancient Egyptians were known for their religious beliefs and astronomical knowledge of the Sun, Moon, and planets, but up until now it has been unclear what role the Milky Way played in Egyptian...
The Abydos Kings list cartouches in the Temple of Seti, Abydos. Source: Olaf Tausch/CC BY 3.0

The Abydos King List Safeguards the Identities of 76 Egyptian Kings

Abydos is one of the oldest ancient Egyptian cities (3,100 – 332 BC) and is one of the most important archaeological sites in all of Egypt. Many ancient temples and tombs can be found there, offering...
Depiction of Ramesses II slaying one enemy while trampling another, from a rock-cut relief at Abu Simbel	Source: Aoineko/CC BY-SA 3.0

Five Cruelest Pharaohs in Egyptian History (Video)

Egyptian history is replete with tales of pharaonic cruelty, and among the most notorious are the 5 cruelest pharaohs who left an indelible mark on the sands of time. In the First Dynasty, rulers...
Left; part of one of the murals, Right; Entrance to the mastaba. Source: Ministry of Tourism & Antiquities

Mastaba With Stunning Murals Unearthed in Dahshur Necropolis

In the shadow of the ancient pyramids of Dahshur, a remarkable discovery has once again highlighted Egypt's enduring legacy as a cradle of human civilization. Thanks to the diligent efforts of a...
A mural from and ancient Egyptians tomb. Source: Svetlaili/Adobe Stock

Here’s How We Know Life in Ancient Egypt was Ravaged by Disease

Thomas Jeffries /The Conversation The mention of ancient Egypt usually conjures images of colossal pyramids and precious, golden tombs. But as with most civilizations, the invisible world of...
A late 19th-century painting of Act IV, Scene 15 of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra: Cleopatra holds Antony as he dies. Source: Alexandre Bida/ CC BY-SA 4.0

Battle of Alexandria 30 BC - The End of Antony and Cleopatra (Video)

In 30 BC, the Battle of Alexandria marked the culmination of Antony and Cleopatra's struggle against Octavian's forces. Following their defeat at Actium , Antony's remaining troops faced challenges,...
AI image of a cave. Source: ToonArt/Adobe Stock

Bizarre Archaeological Finds That Rewrote History (Video)

Archaeology serves as a key to unlock the mysteries of our past, offering glimpses into ancient civilizations that challenge conventional historical narratives. One such revelation emerged from a...
Example of a brightly painted antique papyrus, as could benefit from wasabi’s preservative qualities.	Source: Thomas Sztanek/Adobe Stock

Wasabi Is Innovative ‘Green’ Solution for Preserving Ancient Papyrus

Researchers have discovered a novel, environmentally friendly method for preserving bio-deteriorated painted archaeological papyri using wasabi. The study, led by Hanadi Saada and her team, explored...
An artist’s imaginary depiction of a pharaoh burning herbs in a ritual. Source: Fair use

Dealing in the Past: How Did Ancient Egyptians Get Nicotine and Cocaine?

The discovery of traces of nicotine and cocaine within 3,000-year-old human remains, which came to be known as Egypt’s cocaine mummies, raised curious questions amongst historians. Challenging...
The project team at the start of work at the end of 2018 in the University Library's manuscript collection with (from left) Markéta Preininger, Korshi Dosoo and Edward O. D. Love. Source: Gunnar Bartsch / Universität Würzburg

Translated Egyptian Magical Texts Map Human Emotions

After five years of research two German scientists have published translations of a collection of Egyptian magical texts. Cutting through the love spells, curses and protection rituals, this work...
Sekhmet at Rameses III’s temple at Mabinet Habu (abrilla / Adobe Stock)

The Enigma Of Egyptian Sekhmet And Leonine Deities

Typical of cats, the leonine goddesses of ancient Egypt, including Sekhmet are very elusive, despite countless research papers. A review of the attestations of the cult of feline deities in Egypt...
1700, Cellarius Map of Asia, Europe and Africa according to Strabo. (Right) Drawing of Strabo. Source: PicturePast/Adobe Stock, Public Domain

Strabo's Geographica: A Grand Tour of the Ancient World

Strabo, a prominent Greek geographer, historian, and philosopher born around 64 BC, left an undeniable mark on ancient geography with his magnum opus, " Geographica ." This monumental work,...
Incredible orange sunrise at the temple of Philae, a Graeco-Roman construction seen from the Nile river, a temple dedicated to Isis, goddess of love. (unai/Adobe Stock)

The Golden Age of Ptolemaic Egypt (332-14 BC)

Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC and after his death, his empire was divided. In 305 BC Egypt fell to his general Ptolemy I Soter . The Ptolemaic Dynasty was a powerful Hellenistic state...
The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

When it comes to ancient love stories, few couples have captured the imagination quite like Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Their passionate romance, set against the backdrop of the Roman Empire’s...
AI image of a female pharaoh in a mask and desert with pyramids. Source: MiaStendal

The Pharoah Who Made Her Mark: Sobekneferu's Legacy (Video)

Sobekneferu , often overshadowed by her more famous successors, left an indelible mark as Egypt's first official female pharaoh. Rising to power during the declining years of the Middle Kingdom , she...
Egypt’s Edfu temple with its passage lined by two glowing walls full of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Source: Konstantin/Adobe Stock

Who Are The Lost Gods Of Ancient Egypt? (Video)

Exploring the ancient Egyptian pantheon reveals gods manifested in wood, paint, and stone, shaping a rich tapestry of beliefs. Shifting from a myriad of deities to the revolutionary era centered on...
The complete large straw-tempered Egyptian beer jars from Hierakonpolis in the background. Source:  Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

The Egyptian Beer Recipe Is the Oldest In the World (Video)

Amidst the grandeur of Egyptian history lies an enduring legacy—the art of brewing beer. Hieroglyphs within Pharaohs' chambers unveil a civilization sustained by this liquid gold. Collaborating with...
Image of ancient god Akhenaten.	Source: Vlad/Adobe Stock

The Mystery of Akhenaten's Revolution (Video)

In the ancient annals of Egypt, a mysterious chapter unfolds around Akhenaten , a Pharaoh who dared challenge millennia of entrenched beliefs. Around 3,000 years ago, this audacious ruler initiated a...
Representation of woman smelling a new perfume scent in an ancient perfumery lab.	Source: razoomanetu/Adobe Stock

The Fragrant Ancient History of Perfume (Video)

The history of perfume is a fragrant odyssey, transcending its contemporary role in hygiene. In ancient Egypt, perfumes were divine creations, with Nefertem, the god of the sunrise, overseeing scents...
Some of the baboon skulls for Ancient Egypt that were available for the study. Source: Bea De Cupere, CC-BY 4.0/PLoS ONE

Sacred Egyptian Baboons Suffered in Captivity, Finds Study

A recent study has investigated skeletal remains of 36 individual baboons spanning various age groups, dated from 800 to 500 BC, in ancient Egypt. The findings suggest that baboons were intentionally...
Seventh Plague of Egypt (1823) by John Martin, a painting of the Old Testament bible story. Source: Public domain

Egypt Remembers: Where are the Ancient Accounts of the Great Exodus?

The biblical story of the Israelites’ Descent and Great Exodus speaks about important events that took place in Egypt. We should, therefore, expect to find records of these events in Egyptian sources...
A depiction of the Great Library of Alexandria, a symbol of the intellectual epicenter of the ancient city of Alexandria. Right: Detail of Raphael's (1509–1511) impression of Euclid, teaching students 	Source: Microgen / Adobe Stock

What Made Alexandria the Intellectual Capital of the Ancient World?

The ancient city of Alexandria, nestled on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, held a unique and enduring status as the intellectual capital of its time. Its remarkable legacy as a hub for knowledge...