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Ancient Egypt

Welcome to the section on Ancient Egypt, a civilization that flourished for over 3000 years in the northeastern corner of Africa. Ancient Egypt is known for its rich cultural and artistic heritage, innovative technology, and remarkable achievements in fields such as architecture, agriculture, medicine, and mathematics.
The civilization emerged around 3100 BC, when King Menes unified Upper and Lower Egypt and established the first dynasty. Over the centuries, Egypt saw the rise and fall of great pharaohs, the construction of grand monuments such as the pyramids and temples, and the development of a complex system of writing and religion.
Ancient Egypt was a hierarchical society with a strict social structure, where the pharaoh was considered a god-king who ruled with absolute power. The people of Egypt believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, and their religious practices were intertwined with everyday life.
The achievements of Ancient Egypt are still visible today in the grand monuments, artworks, and artifacts that have survived the passage of time. From the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza to the hieroglyphs and papyrus scrolls that record their history, Ancient Egypt continues to captivate and inspire people from around the world.
The Old Kingdom, which lasted from around 2686 BC to 2181 BC, was marked by the construction of iconic pyramids and the development of hieroglyphic writing. The Middle Kingdom, from 2055 BC to 1650 BC, saw a resurgence of art and culture, as well as the expansion of trade and conquest.
The New Kingdom, from 1550 BC to 1069 BC, was the most prosperous and powerful period of ancient Egyptian history, marked by the rule of famous pharaohs such as Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and Tutankhamun. This era saw the construction of grand temples and monumental architecture, and the development of a complex religious and social system.
After the New Kingdom, Egypt experienced a period of decline and foreign rule, with the country being conquered by the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. Despite this, ancient Egyptian culture continued to influence and inspire subsequent civilizations, and its legacy can still be seen in art, literature, and architecture today.
The articles you will find here explore the wonders of Ancient Egypt, and you will learn about the history, culture, and achievements of one of the most fascinating civilizations in human history.

An artist’s imaginary depiction of a pharaoh burning herbs in a ritual. Source: Fair use

Dealing in the Past: How Did Ancient Egyptians Get Nicotine and Cocaine?

The discovery of traces of nicotine and cocaine within 3,000-year-old human remains, which came to be known as Egypt’s cocaine mummies, raised curious questions amongst historians. Challenging...
The project team at the start of work at the end of 2018 in the University Library's manuscript collection with (from left) Markéta Preininger, Korshi Dosoo and Edward O. D. Love. Source: Gunnar Bartsch / Universität Würzburg

Translated Egyptian Magical Texts Map Human Emotions

After five years of research two German scientists have published translations of a collection of Egyptian magical texts. Cutting through the love spells, curses and protection rituals, this work...
Sekhmet at Rameses III’s temple at Mabinet Habu (abrilla / Adobe Stock)

The Enigma Of Egyptian Sekhmet And Leonine Deities

Typical of cats, the leonine goddesses of ancient Egypt, including Sekhmet are very elusive, despite countless research papers. A review of the attestations of the cult of feline deities in Egypt...
1700, Cellarius Map of Asia, Europe and Africa according to Strabo. (Right) Drawing of Strabo. Source: PicturePast/Adobe Stock, Public Domain

Strabo's Geographica: A Grand Tour of the Ancient World

Strabo, a prominent Greek geographer, historian, and philosopher born around 64 BC, left an undeniable mark on ancient geography with his magnum opus, " Geographica ." This monumental work,...
Incredible orange sunrise at the temple of Philae, a Graeco-Roman construction seen from the Nile river, a temple dedicated to Isis, goddess of love. (unai/Adobe Stock)

The Golden Age of Ptolemaic Egypt (332-14 BC)

Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC and after his death, his empire was divided. In 305 BC Egypt fell to his general Ptolemy I Soter . The Ptolemaic Dynasty was a powerful Hellenistic state...
The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

When it comes to ancient love stories, few couples have captured the imagination quite like Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Their passionate romance, set against the backdrop of the Roman Empire’s...
AI image of a female pharaoh in a mask and desert with pyramids. Source: MiaStendal

The Pharoah Who Made Her Mark: Sobekneferu's Legacy (Video)

Sobekneferu , often overshadowed by her more famous successors, left an indelible mark as Egypt's first official female pharaoh. Rising to power during the declining years of the Middle Kingdom , she...
Egypt’s Edfu temple with its passage lined by two glowing walls full of Egyptian hieroglyphs. Source: Konstantin/Adobe Stock

Who Are The Lost Gods Of Ancient Egypt? (Video)

Exploring the ancient Egyptian pantheon reveals gods manifested in wood, paint, and stone, shaping a rich tapestry of beliefs. Shifting from a myriad of deities to the revolutionary era centered on...
The complete large straw-tempered Egyptian beer jars from Hierakonpolis in the background. Source:  Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

The Egyptian Beer Recipe Is the Oldest In the World (Video)

Amidst the grandeur of Egyptian history lies an enduring legacy—the art of brewing beer. Hieroglyphs within Pharaohs' chambers unveil a civilization sustained by this liquid gold. Collaborating with...
Image of ancient god Akhenaten.	Source: Vlad/Adobe Stock

The Mystery of Akhenaten's Revolution (Video)

In the ancient annals of Egypt, a mysterious chapter unfolds around Akhenaten , a Pharaoh who dared challenge millennia of entrenched beliefs. Around 3,000 years ago, this audacious ruler initiated a...
Representation of woman smelling a new perfume scent in an ancient perfumery lab.	Source: razoomanetu/Adobe Stock

The Fragrant Ancient History of Perfume (Video)

The history of perfume is a fragrant odyssey, transcending its contemporary role in hygiene. In ancient Egypt, perfumes were divine creations, with Nefertem, the god of the sunrise, overseeing scents...
Some of the baboon skulls for Ancient Egypt that were available for the study. Source: Bea De Cupere, CC-BY 4.0/PLoS ONE

Sacred Egyptian Baboons Suffered in Captivity, Finds Study

A recent study has investigated skeletal remains of 36 individual baboons spanning various age groups, dated from 800 to 500 BC, in ancient Egypt. The findings suggest that baboons were intentionally...
Seventh Plague of Egypt (1823) by John Martin, a painting of the Old Testament bible story. Source: Public domain

Egypt Remembers: Where are the Ancient Accounts of the Great Exodus?

The biblical story of the Israelites’ Descent and Great Exodus speaks about important events that took place in Egypt. We should, therefore, expect to find records of these events in Egyptian sources...
A depiction of the Great Library of Alexandria, a symbol of the intellectual epicenter of the ancient city of Alexandria. Right: Detail of Raphael's (1509–1511) impression of Euclid, teaching students 	Source: Microgen / Adobe Stock

What Made Alexandria the Intellectual Capital of the Ancient World?

The ancient city of Alexandria, nestled on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, held a unique and enduring status as the intellectual capital of its time. Its remarkable legacy as a hub for knowledge...
A majestic sculpture of Pharaoh Akhenaten under the sun disc of Aten. Source:  y EOL STUDIOS /Adobe Stock

How Akhenaten Demolished Centuries of Egyptian Tradition (Video)

In the historical upheaval orchestrated by Pharaoh Akhenaten , the once polytheistic tapestry of Egyptian beliefs unraveled. Akhenaten, a radical monarch, discarded centuries-old traditions by...
Archaeologists were astounded when they discovered a mutilated mummy within a humble burial chamber in Luxor's 'Valley of the Kings.	Source: YouTube Screenshot/Smithsonian Channel

Archaeologists Aghast at the Discovery of a Mutilated Mummy in Egypt (Video)

Within a humble tomb designated as KV64 nestled in Luxor's revered 'Valley of the Kings,' archaeologists made a disconcerting discovery. Beneath the unassuming exterior and a small coffin lay an...
Egyptian pharaoh on a throne. Source: Ivan / Adobe Stock.

Were Egyptian Pharaohs as Mighty as They Seemed? (Video)

In the shadows of the ancient temple of Medinet Habu , the grandiosity of Egyptian pharaohs is etched into stone, portraying them as formidable conquerors. Dr. Chris Naunton scrutinizes the...
Tutankhamun’s chair. Source: Alfredo / Adobe Stock.

Was King Tut's Tomb Built for a Woman? (Video)

The mystery surrounding King Tut's tomb deepens with the revelation of intriguing design elements. Notably, the unusual right-hand turn upon entering the tomb challenges traditional expectations. In...
King Tut’s tomb was prepared in a rush. Source: Jaroslav Moravcik / Adobe Stock.

Why Was Tutankhamun’s Tomb Prepared in Such a Hurry? (Video)

King Tutankhamun's burial , typically a carefully orchestrated affair, deviates intriguingly from the norm. Anomalies emerge in the form of mysterious black mold patches adorning the tomb's walls, a...
Recreation of an Egyptian war chariot from the Early New Kingdom by Angus McBride

An Ancient Egyptian Arms Race (Video)

Seqenenre Tao , a determined pharaoh of the Seventeenth Dynasty in ancient Egypt, played a pivotal role in the arms race against the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. Faced with the...
Ancient Egypt funeral of a pharaoh. Source: Robert / Adobe Stock.

Ancient Egypt’s Mystifying Burial Practices (Video)

Unveiling the mysteries of ancient burial practices, the Valley of the Kings stands as an enigmatic testament to Egypt's rich history. Unlike the iconic pyramids , the tombs here delve deep...
Dogs were very important to the ancient Egyptians. Source: StockMediaProduction / Adobe Stock.

Here's Why Dogs Were So Important to Ancient Egyptians (Videos)

In ancient Egypt, the importance of dogs transcended their domestic companionship. These canines played an indispensable role in the capture and control of exotic creatures. Fierce teams of hunters...
The teratoma tumor, including teeth, which was discovered within the Amarna crypt. Source: A. Deblauwe / Amarna Project

3,000-Year-Old Ovarian Tumor with Teeth Unearthed from Egyptian Tomb

A new study has highlighted the oldest documented instance of a teratoma discovered within the 3,000-year-old burial chamber of a young woman found in an ancient Egyptian cemetery. Teratomas are a...
An embracing couple in medieval dress, symbolic of ancient love stories of history. Source: Karrrtinki/Adobe Stock

7 Ancient Love Stories That Shook the World

In the annals of history, there exist tales of love that transcend the boundaries of time and society, romances that have left a permanent mark on the world. From the passionate but doomed romance of...

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