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Ancient Egypt

Welcome to the section on Ancient Egypt, a civilization that flourished for over 3000 years in the northeastern corner of Africa. Ancient Egypt is known for its rich cultural and artistic heritage, innovative technology, and remarkable achievements in fields such as architecture, agriculture, medicine, and mathematics.
The civilization emerged around 3100 BC, when King Menes unified Upper and Lower Egypt and established the first dynasty. Over the centuries, Egypt saw the rise and fall of great pharaohs, the construction of grand monuments such as the pyramids and temples, and the development of a complex system of writing and religion.
Ancient Egypt was a hierarchical society with a strict social structure, where the pharaoh was considered a god-king who ruled with absolute power. The people of Egypt believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, and their religious practices were intertwined with everyday life.
The achievements of Ancient Egypt are still visible today in the grand monuments, artworks, and artifacts that have survived the passage of time. From the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza to the hieroglyphs and papyrus scrolls that record their history, Ancient Egypt continues to captivate and inspire people from around the world.
The Old Kingdom, which lasted from around 2686 BC to 2181 BC, was marked by the construction of iconic pyramids and the development of hieroglyphic writing. The Middle Kingdom, from 2055 BC to 1650 BC, saw a resurgence of art and culture, as well as the expansion of trade and conquest.
The New Kingdom, from 1550 BC to 1069 BC, was the most prosperous and powerful period of ancient Egyptian history, marked by the rule of famous pharaohs such as Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and Tutankhamun. This era saw the construction of grand temples and monumental architecture, and the development of a complex religious and social system.
After the New Kingdom, Egypt experienced a period of decline and foreign rule, with the country being conquered by the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. Despite this, ancient Egyptian culture continued to influence and inspire subsequent civilizations, and its legacy can still be seen in art, literature, and architecture today.
The articles you will find here explore the wonders of Ancient Egypt, and you will learn about the history, culture, and achievements of one of the most fascinating civilizations in human history.

A large collection of gold foil objects retrieved at the Tel Al-Deir cemetery.

Tombs and Gold Foils from the Ptolemaic Era Unearthed in Egypt’s Damietta

Archaeologists in Egypt have uncovered 63 mudbrick tombs and several simple burials containing a collection of gold foils from the 26th Dynasty of the Late Period. This correlates with the Ptolemaic...
The stone carvings found during a diving expedition near Aswan, Egypt.	Source: © Dr Cristian Craciun/Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Rediscovered Underwater Near Aswan

Archaeologists recently unveiled a remarkable discovery near Aswan, Egypt: rock carvings depicting ancient Egyptian pharaohs, submerged for decades due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam. This...
Photo of the Nefertiti bust in Neues Museum, Berlin.		Source: Smalljim/CC BY-SA 3.0

Nefertiti is Still in Germany and Hasn’t Been Returned (Video)

The bust of Nefertiti, a 3,400-year-old artifact valued at around 400 million euros, has been in Germany for over a century, displayed at the Neues Museum Berlin . The artifact's continued presence...
The crocodile mummy entering the CT scanner.	Source: University of Manchester This article is a press release by the University of Manchester, originally titled, “Croc’s deadly last meal in Ancient Egypt unearthed”.

Croc’s Deadly Last Meal in Ancient Egypt Revealed

Scientists have used state of the art 3D imaging technology to piece together the life - and probable death - of a 2.2-meter-long crocodile mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The researchers from...
Life in ancient Egypt

6 Surprising Facts About Life for Egyptian Slaves

The prominence of slavery in ancient Egypt is well-documented, but many aspects of enslaved people's lives remain less known. Here are six lesser-known facts about how Egyptian slaves lived. From...
Left; Mummified skull of Ramesses II, Right; Reconstructed face of Ramesses by Cicero Moraes	.	Source: Left; G. Elliot Smith/Public domain, Right; © Cicero Moraes

Wise Face of Egypt’s Most Powerful Pharaoh Moments Before Death

The face of Ramesses II, or Ramesses the Great, one of ancient Egypt’s most powerful pharaohs, has been meticulously reconstructed by scientists using advanced 3D modeling techniques. This recreation...
: Statues depicting the high dignitary Nefer and his wife (Abusir, Egypt).  Source: Martin Frouz and the Czech Institute of Egyptology, Charles University/Nature

Ancient Egyptian Scribes Suffered from Arthritis & Other Skeletal Pain

A fascinating study of the skeletal remains of ancient Egyptian scribes from the third millennium BC has revealed the physical costs of this job. While the type of work they did might seem relatively...
A carved and painted wooden coffin

Image of Egyptian High Priest’s Daughter Likened to Marge Simpson

After is discovery in 2023, Reddit readers have just picked up on the depiction of a character resembling Marge Simpson on the inner lid of a 3,500-year-old Egyptian sarcophagus. The coffin,...
AI image of Egyptian goddess, Nephthys.

Nephthys, Egyptian Goddess of the Night and Protectress of the Dead

Perhaps one of the most mysterious and elusive deities of the ancient Egyptian pantheon, Nephthys was known as the shadowy goddess of the night, of death and decay. She was the dark sister of Isis,...
Face of Killed Pharaoh Seqenenre the Brave Revealed

Face of Killed Pharaoh ‘Seqenenre the Brave’ Revealed

Scientists have meticulously reconstructed the face of Seqenenre-Tao II, an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who met a brutal end 3,500 years ago. Known as 'The Brave,' Seqenenre-Tao II was either slain...
Egyptian sarcophagus of Pharaoh Tutankhamun

Crowns of the Pharaohs: Missing Artifacts or Artistic Symbols of Divinity?

In Ancient Egypt, the gods and pharaohs were depicted with a crown, which, according to Egyptologists, w as also taken into the grave for the afterlife. However, these crowns have never been found...
Skull E270, dating from between 663 and 343 BC, belonged to a female individual who was older than 50 years. Image: Tondini, Isidro, Camarós, 2024.                 Source: Tondini, Isidro, Camarós, 2024/Frontiers

Ancient Egyptian Medical Experts Apparently Tried to Treat Brain Cancer

The ancient Egyptians were known for making extraordinary advances in medicine, which put them way ahead of their time. A new study just published in the journal Frontiers in Medicine certainly...
Left; Ramesses II statue, Right; Long side of the granite sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

Ramesses II - Original Sarcophagus Identified Within the Valley of Kings

Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, or Ramesses the Great, from a tomb complex designated KV7 in the Valley of Kings. This tomb was near...
Reconstruction of Amenhotep II. Source: Cicero Moraes

Unveiling the Face of Amenhotep III: The 'Richest Man Who Ever Lived'

Amenhotep III, one of the greatest pharaohs of ancient Egypt, reigned during the height of Egypt's power 3,400 years ago. Known for his unparalleled wealth and grand architectural achievements,...
Egyptian sarcophagus of Pharaoh Tutankhamun isolated on black background. Source: Anna/Adobe Stock

The Cursed Search For King Tut's Tomb (Video)

The quest for King Tutankhamun's tomb stands as a pivotal moment in archaeological history, unraveling mysteries of an ancient civilization buried beneath the sands of time. Initially, the unearthing...
Left; Image of Khufu’s Queen’s chamber and Right; a view of Khufu’s pyramid.                   Source:  Provided by Author, Right, Gary Todd/ CC0

A Watery Solution to the Enigmas of Khufu Pyramid’s Queen’s Chamber

Following up on my recent article on the ante-chamber in the Khufu pyramid, published on Ancient Origins public site , in which I argued it was a device designed to open and close more than once,...
The curious structure has been found in Giza’s prestigious Western Cemetery, in the shadow of the Great Pyramids. Source: Motoyuki Sato et al / Archaeological Prospection.

Curious L-Shaped Structure Found near Giza Pyramids is 4,500-Years-Old

An international team of archaeologists has stumbled upon a mysterious L-shaped structure buried within a cemetery adjacent to the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza. The structure is 4,500 years and...
The Bent Pyramid in Dahshur, Egypt.		Source: WitR/Adobe Stock

The Bent Pyramid’s Light Magic - An Intentional Phenomenon?

King Sneferu (Snofru, Seneferu) was the father of Khufu and is famous for being responsible for two pyramids, plus finishing his predecessor’s at Meidum. His two pyramids at Dashur lie within sight...
General view of pyramids from the Giza Plat in Egypt. Source: kanuman/Adobe Stock

6 Ways Ancient Egypt Shaped World History (Video)

Ancient Egypt's impact on world history is profound, extending far beyond its pyramids and mummies. As one of the longest-lasting empires, its influence shaped diverse facets of human civilization...
The Egyptian Royal Retreat is along a well-used military route and would have been a convenient place of rest for the pharaoh when campaigning east. Source: Live Science / Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

3,500-Year-Old Egyptian Royal Retreat Found in the Sinai Desert

The remnants of a 3,500-year-old ‘royal fortified rest area’ have been uncovered by an Egyptian mission at the Tel Habwa archaeological site in the Northern Sinai Archaeological Area. Constructed of...
Cleopatra’s Needle, better known as Thutmose Obelisk, in Central Park, New York. Source: John Anderson / Adobe Stock

Few Non-visitors Are Aware of the 3,500-Year-Old Obelisk in NY's Central Park

Nestled amidst the lush greenery of Central Park lies the oldest outdoor monument in New York City: Cleopatra's Needle. The tale of how this imposing ancient Egyptian obelisk got there, as well as...
AI portrait of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh king. Source: Andrea Raffin/Adobe Stock

Why Did Egyptian Pharaohs Have Five Names?

Ancient Egyptian pharaohs were not merely rulers; they were considered divine beings, the living embodiments of gods on Earth. Their names were imbued with profound significance, reflecting their...
Representative image of Egyptian blue pigment. Source: Pattadis / Adobe Stock

Tracing the Legacy of Egyptian Blue: From Ancient Artifacts to Modern Insights

Egyptian blue, known in the scientific community as calcium copper silicate, has come to be recognized as a pioneering feat of human creativity. With origins speculated to precede 3000 BC, Egyptian...
Milky Way and pink light over mountains. Source: den-belitsky/Adobe Stock

The Hidden Role of the Milky Way in Ancient Egyptian Mythology (Study)

Ancient Egyptians were known for their religious beliefs and astronomical knowledge of the Sun, Moon, and planets, but up until now it has been unclear what role the Milky Way played in Egyptian...