This period, which covers the time between the end of the Old Kingdom around 2181 BC and the beginning of the Middle Kingdom around 2055 BC, was marked by political fragmentation, economic instability, and cultural upheaval. It was a time of great change and uncertainty for the people of Ancient Egypt.
The First Intermediate Period began with the collapse of the centralized government that had characterized the Old Kingdom. As a result, Egypt was divided into a number of smaller kingdoms and city-states, each vying for power and resources. This led to a period of great instability, with frequent warfare and political upheaval.
Despite this turmoil, the First Intermediate Period was also a time of cultural creativity and innovation. Artists and writers experimented with new styles and forms, and religious beliefs and practices underwent significant changes. It was also a time of great social mobility, as individuals and families were able to rise to positions of power and influence that had previously been reserved for the elite.
In this section, we will explore the key events and developments of Egypt's First Intermediate Period, including the collapse of the Old Kingdom, the rise of the regional kingdoms, and the cultural and artistic innovations that emerged during this time. We will also examine the economic and social conditions that characterized the period, and the legacy that it left on Ancient Egyptian civilization and the wider world.