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First Intermediate Period

This period, which covers the time between  the end of the Old Kingdom around 2181 BC and the beginning of the Middle  Kingdom around 2055 BC, was marked by political fragmentation, economic  instability, and cultural upheaval. It was a time of great change and  uncertainty for the people of Ancient Egypt.

The First Intermediate Period began with  the collapse of the centralized government that had characterized the Old Kingdom.  As a result, Egypt was divided into a number of smaller kingdoms and  city-states, each vying for power and resources. This led to a period of great  instability, with frequent warfare and political upheaval.

Despite this turmoil, the First Intermediate  Period was also a time of cultural creativity and innovation. Artists and  writers experimented with new styles and forms, and religious beliefs and  practices underwent significant changes. It was also a time of great social  mobility, as individuals and families were able to rise to positions of power  and influence that had previously been reserved for the elite.

In this section, we will explore the key  events and developments of Egypt's First Intermediate Period, including the  collapse of the Old Kingdom, the rise of the regional kingdoms, and the  cultural and artistic innovations that emerged during this time. We will also  examine the economic and social conditions that characterized the period, and  the legacy that it left on Ancient Egyptian civilization and the wider world.

Representation of ancient Egyptian military unit going to battle.        Source: Acrogame / Adobe Stock

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