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All the latest news on finds, advancements, and research in archaeology and ancient history, from the No 1 Ancient History website in the world

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Humans and Neanderthals started breeding together 47,000 years ago.     Source: Gorodenkoff/Adobe Stock

Geneticists Think Neanderthals and Sapiens Started Breeding 47,000 Years Ago

Most people alive today carry traces of genes inherited from Neanderthals, indicating a complex history of interbreeding between modern humans and their now extinct cousins. But when exactly we first...
Left; A turquoise mask representing the god Tezcatlipoca.  Right;Tezcatlipoca with all 20-day signs, symbolizing the divine calendar. Source: Left; CC BY-SA 2.5, Right; Public Domain

Tezcatlipoca, Prime God of the Aztecs, Compared to Other Omnipotent Deities

The god Tezcatlipoca was a major Aztec deity who was worshiped in east-west facing temples in many Mesoamerican city-states under the influence of the Aztecs, particularly Texcoco. He was considered...
AI image of a young Roman man.     Source: Arceli / Adobe Stock

Beyond the Cut: The Historical and Cultural Significance of Hairstyles and Barbershops

The pandemic in 2020, which shuttered hairdressers for most of the year, led to numerous unexpected hair trends such as buzzcuts and fringes. The much-derided mullet also made an appearance. This...
Aerial image of the excavations at Kültepe Kanesh, Anatolia.              Source: Keyseri Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism

Oldest Start-up? First Company in Anatolia Founded 4000 Years Ago

An extraordinary discovery in Kültepe has shed light on the ancient origins of commerce in Anatolia. A 4000-year-old cuneiform tablet reveals that the first company in the region was founded by a...
Conceptual image of T Coronae Borealis outburst predicted for late 2024.                  Source: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Blazing Star Event First Recorded in a Medieval Manuscript to Return

An astronomical anomaly that was first observed and recorded more than eight centuries ago is about to make a return visit to Earth’s night skies. Sometime between now and September, a double star...
Votive offering of obsidian knives discovered at Tlatelolco site, Mexico City.

Knife Offering Like No Other Discovered in the Great Basement of Tlatelolco

R esearchers have unearthed a very special votive offering in the ‘Great Basement’ of Tlatelolco, Mexico City. The offering was discovered inside a stone box or cist and includes a large collection...
Mangareva - Binary System

Remote Islanders Invented Binary Number System Before Famed Mathematician

Mangareva is home to just 2,000 inhabitants. The island is a tiny 18 square kilometres (6.94 sq mi) and is located halfway between Easter Island and Tahiti. Yet on this small, remote island, the...
Left; Ramesses II statue, Right; Long side of the granite sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

Ramesses II - Original Sarcophagus Identified Within the Valley of Kings

Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, or Ramesses the Great, from a tomb complex designated KV7 in the Valley of Kings. This tomb was near...
A 4,500-year-old dugout canoe found in Lake Mendota.	Source: Wisconsin Historical Society

11 Ancient Canoes at Lake Mendota Reveal Wisconsin's Early Civilizations

Archaeologists from the Wisconsin Historical Society have unearthed up to 11 ancient canoes at the bottom of Lake Mendota in Madison, Wisconsin, offering new insights into the region’s early...
Detail of the 1650-year-old Speyer wine bottle. Source: Wines of Germany

To Open or Not to Open The 1,650-Year-Old Speyer Wine Bottle?

Contemporary historians have been debating for a few years now if they should open the Speyer wine bottle, which is believed to be the world’s oldest bottle of wine. The Historical Museum of the...
Thomas Einwögerer and Hannah Parow-Souchon preparing the bones for recovery from the basement. Source: Yannik Merkl/OAW)

Mammoth Bones from 40,000-Years-Ago Uncovered in Austrian Wine Cellar!

In Lower Austria’s Krems district, a local winemaker stumbled upon a legendary discovery while renovating his wine cellar in Gobelsburg: around 300 mammoth bones dating back approximately 30,000 to...
Flash Tesla coil experiment. Source: Public Domain

The Giza-Tesla Connection Finally Explained

With no, or slim, evidence, Egyptologists claim that all of Egypt’s pyramids were built to be tombs. With an abundance of robust evidence, I will theorize that all of Egypt’s pyramids were built to...
The pile field at the site of Dispilio. Almost 800 piles, mostly made of juniper and oak wood, were sampled and dendrochronologically measured.	Source: Dispilio Excavation Archive/Bern University

Cosmic Rays Date the Precise Year of 7000-year-old Settlement!

University of Bern Researchers at the University of Bern have for the first time been able to pin down a prehistoric settlement of early farmers in northern Greece dating back more than 7,000 years...
Drawing on a tomb/wall from Ankhmahor, Sakkara, Egypt, of an adult circumcision. Source: Public Domain

What Surgery Was Like in Ancient Egypt (Video)

Surgery in ancient Egypt was a remarkable display of ingenuity and resourcefulness. Despite the absence of modern anesthesia and antiseptic methods, ancient Egyptian physicians demonstrated...
View of the Lailea River from on top of the hill containing Laili rockshelter. Source: Mike Morley/The Conversation

Find in Ancient Mud May Rewrite the History of Settlement in Australasia

Mike W. Morley et al./The Conversation Humans arrived in Australia at least 65,000 years ago , according to archaeological evidence. These pioneers were part of an early wave of people travelling...
This scene shows an"epicier" (grocer or seller of spices) talking with a client.	Source: Lawrence OP/CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

What Was ‘Middle Class’ in Medieval in England (Video)

In medieval England, societal structure was rigidly defined, determining everything from one's occupation to their social status and privileges. While the majority of the population consisted of...
The photograph shows an in-situ bipoint biface found within the exposed and eroding paleosol on July 23th, 2017. 	Source: Darrin Lowrey/ Research Gate

Migration to the Americas Potentially Occurred 7,000 Years Earlier Than Thought

One of archaeology's most hotly debated topics, the arrival of humans in the Americas, has received an added impetus. New evidence emerged from Parsons Island, Maryland that has been proposed to...
The deceased nuns were left in seated positions to decompose. Source: Yellow.Cat from Roma, Italy/ CC BY 2.0

Daily Prayers with Decomposing Corpses: Death Chairs at Aragonese Castle

The Aragonese Castle is a castle built on top of a rocky islet next to Ischia, a small Italian island on the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. Whilst a stronghold is said to have already been built...
Alexander the Great Founding Alexandria, Egypt.	Source: Public Domain

What Happened to Alexander the Great in Ancient Egypt? (Video)

Alexander the Great's expedition into ancient Egypt during the mid-4th century BC marked a pivotal moment in history, characterized by a profound convergence of civilizations. Despite Egypt's...
Neanderthals Archaic Extinct Human Skull Vs Modern Human Skull Comparison Art Study.	Source: Winters860/Adobe Stock

Why Neanderthals Probably Didn’t Use Metaphors

Steven Mithen /The Conversation The Neanderthals ( Homo neanderthalensis ) fascinate researchers and the general public alike. They remain central to debates about the nature of the genus Homo (the...
Artistic photo showing the replica of the Dendra armor used in the study. 	Source: Flouris et al., 2024, PLOS ONE/CC-BY 4.0

Greek Marines Prove Mycenaean Suit of Armor Was Fit for Battle

A suit of armor found at an archaeological site near the village of Dendra, Greece in 1960 has been linked to the famed kingdom of Mycenae , a militarily powerful Late Bronze age fiefdom that holds...
William Dampier portrait, holding his book Source:  Public Domain

The Pirate Who Became the First Natural Scientist - and Loved Coconuts (Video)

William Dampier, a pirate with a penchant for coconuts, led a life that epitomized the duality of adventure and exploration. Born in 1651, his early years were marked by a desire for knowledge,...
AI image representing psychiatric disorders.	Source: anas/Adobe Stock

Ancient Viral DNA in the Human Genome Linked to Major Psychiatric Disorders

King’s College London New research led by King’s College London has found that thousands of DNA sequences originating from ancient viral infections are expressed in the brain, with some contributing...
Historical illustration of the great Roman Empire. Source: Roman /Adobe Stock

Imperium Sine Fine, Frontiers, and City Walls: Early Rome to the Emperor Aurelian

The Latin word imperium originally meant power, specifically the power to command armies, and also civilians. Such power was conferred by law on a Roman official, such as a consul, a praetor, or any...

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