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Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period covers the  time between the end of the Middle Kingdom around 1782 BC and the beginning of  the New Kingdom around 1550 BC. It was a time of great upheaval and uncertainty,  marked by foreign invasion, political instability, and cultural transformation.

The Second Intermediate Period began with  the invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos, a foreign people who established a capital  at Avaris in the Delta region of Egypt. The Hyksos ruled over much of northern  Egypt for several centuries, during which time they introduced new technologies  and cultural practices to the region.

Despite the Hyksos' dominance, there were  still native Egyptian rulers who retained control over portions of the country.  These rulers established the 16th and 17th Dynasties, which were based in Upper  Egypt and which eventually succeeded in driving out the Hyksos and reuniting  Egypt.

The Second Intermediate Period was a time  of great cultural exchange and innovation, with the Hyksos introducing new  technologies and cultural practices to Egypt, and the native Egyptians  responding with their own artistic and literary innovations. The period saw the  emergence of new forms of art and literature, as well as significant  developments in religion and philosophy.

In this section, we will explore the key  events and developments of Egypt's Second Intermediate Period, including the  rise and fall of the Hyksos, the establishment of the 16th and 17th Dynasties,  and the cultural and artistic innovations of the period. We will also examine  the economic and social conditions that characterized the period, and the  legacy that it left on Ancient Egyptian civilization and the wider world.