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Egyptian Rulers

Although incomplete, records of rulers of  Egypt run from 3400 BC to pretty much the present day. Over the course of its  long history, Egypt was ruled by many pharaohs, queens, and other notable  individuals who left their mark on the civilization and the world at large.

From game-changers like Akhenaten,  Hatshepsut and Ramesses the Great, to the legendary figures Tutankhamun and  Cleopatra and lesser-known but equally significant leaders, the people of  Ancient Egypt have much to teach us about leadership, innovation, and cultural  achievement.

Here we present some of those that are  well-known to the modern world or had quite an impact on the history of Ancient  Egypt.

Left; Ramesses II statue, Right; Long side of the granite sarcophagus of Ramesses II.

Ramesses II - Original Sarcophagus Identified Within the Valley of Kings

Archaeologists from Sorbonne University have identified the original sarcophagus of Ramesses II, or Ramesses the Great, from a tomb complex designated KV7 in the Valley of Kings. This tomb was near...
Reconstruction of Amenhotep II. Source: Cicero Moraes

Unveiling the Face of Amenhotep III: The 'Richest Man Who Ever Lived'

Amenhotep III, one of the greatest pharaohs of ancient Egypt, reigned during the height of Egypt's power 3,400 years ago. Known for his unparalleled wealth and grand architectural achievements,...
The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

The Elusive Quest: The Search for Antony and Cleopatra's Lost Tomb

When it comes to ancient love stories, few couples have captured the imagination quite like Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Their passionate romance, set against the backdrop of the Roman Empire’s...
AI image of a female pharaoh in a mask and desert with pyramids. Source: MiaStendal

The Pharoah Who Made Her Mark: Sobekneferu's Legacy (Video)

Sobekneferu , often overshadowed by her more famous successors, left an indelible mark as Egypt's first official female pharaoh. Rising to power during the declining years of the Middle Kingdom , she...
Pharaoh Senebkay was different to other Egyptian kings

This Abydos Pharaoh Was Unusual in Many Ways (Video)

The discovery of Pharaoh Senebkay‘s remains offers a unique glimpse into an unconventional Egyptian dynasty. Unlike typical pharaohs, Senebkay was a modest ruler, and his life was far from the...
Facial reconstruction of Cleopatra. Source: YouTube Screenshot / Royalty Now Studios.

Remarkable Facial Reconstruction of Cleopatra (Video)

Cleopatra, the famed Egyptian queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty , is a historical figure who has captured the imagination for centuries. Born in 69 BC, she ascended to the throne at just 18 years old...
Archaeologists have discovered hundreds of ancient wine jars in Queen Merneith’s tomb. Source: Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

5,000-Year-Old Wine Jars Unearthed at Queen Merneith's Tomb

An important discovery at Umm Al-Qaab in Abydos, promises to add to the story of Queen Merneith, an Egyptian consort and regent, who could have also been the first or second queen of Egypt. A joint...
A Hippopotamus. Source: Aintschie / Adobe Stock.

Hunting Hippos Was a Royal Sport in Ancient Egypt

To the modern observer, the hippopotamus might seem a curious creature - large and often languid in its watery habitat. However, in ancient Egypt, the hippo was regarded as one of the most ferocious...
Ancient frescoes often depict scenes from the daily life, religious rituals, or important events of an Egyptian Pharaoh. Source: EdNurg/Adobe Stock

A Day in the Life of an Egyptian Pharaoh

Ancient Egypt, one of the greatest civilizations to have ever existed, spanned a vast timeline, lasting for approximately 3,000 years. For much of that time, it was ruled over by god-kings known as...
Left is the original photo of the Khafre statue; right is the photo cut in half and flipped.	Source: Author provided.

The Brilliance of ‘Pre-diluvian’ Sculpture - Cannot Be Hand Made!

I'm still digesting our recent tour to Egypt; the temple and the pyramids - just the atmosphere of the ancients was a lot to take in. Each time I visit, I’m stunned at the beauty, sophistication, and...
Queen Cleopatra Selene II, between Rome and Egypt. Source: AIproduction/Adobe Stock

Cleopatra Selene II: A Survivor’s Royal Destiny

Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of the famed Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII and Roman general Mark Antony, led a remarkable and turbulent life that intertwined the legacies of both Egypt and Rome. Born...
Left, Tutankhamun golden funerary mask. Right, 2023 facial reconstruction of King Tutankhamun. Source: Left, merydolla / Adobe Stock. Right, C. Moraes et al.

Experts Speculate Tutankhamun's Death Was Due to A Drink Driving Chariot Accident

A crown prince who abused his authority, driving fast and drunk? It doesn’t seem implausible, but when you tie that to King Tutankhamun, ancient Egypt’s famed boy king, it seems almost outrageous...
3D reconstruction of Egyptian King Tutankhamun from 2023. Source: C. Moraes et al.

New Study Unveils the Face of Egypt's Iconic Pharaoh Tutankhamun

Researchers have conducted a new study aiming to shed light on the facial appearance of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh, Tutankhamun. The study, led by a team of forensic experts and anthropologists,...
Bottom, a Hetepheres bracelet in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MFA 47.1700. Top, an electrotype reproduction made in 1947, MFA 52.1837 (Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition)		Source: © April 2023 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston/ Journal of Archaeological Science

Stunning Silver Bracelet of Egyptian Queen Hetepheres Reveals Trade Secrets

In a remarkable revelation from a recent study, ancient Egypt has once again defied expectations, showcasing its globalized nature even in the early Bronze Age. The study, centered around a...
Cleopatra’s Death as depicted in a painting entitled ‘The Death of Cleopatra’ by Jean-André Rixens. Source: Public domain

The Enigma of Cleopatra's Death: Was it Suicide or Murder?

Accepted historical accounts claim that Cleopatra, the last active pharaoh of ancient Egypt, committed suicide. Cleopatra assumed the throne of Egypt after the demise of Alexander the Great during...
Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. (Public Domain)

The Final Fates of the Children of Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII had four children. One with Julius Caesar and three with Mark Antony. Until 31 BC the family of the last Ptolemaic queen lived a magnificent life in a golden palace, one of the most...
Relief in the Karnak Temple showing Thutmose III slaying Canaanite captives from the Battle of Megiddo, 15th Century BC. (Olaf Tausch/CC BY 3.0)

Thutmose III, the Famed Warrior King of Ancient Egypt

The power that marked the rise of Ancient Egypt’s New Kingdom period rested solely on the shoulders of capable pharaohs. Such a vast realm could never thrive if it weren’t for leaders that were bold...
Montage showing the famous Nefertiti bust in Berlin, over images of sunrise over the Nile in Middle Egypt, near Amarna, (background), and the Valley of the Queens, West Bank, Luxor. Source: Giovanni from Firenze/ CC BY 2.0, background; © Jonathon A. Perrin

“Nefer Say Nefer” - Was Nefertiti Buried in the Valley of the Queens?

She may be ancient Egypt’s most famous face, but the quest to find the eternal resting place of Queen Nefertiti has never been hotter. Thanks to the now-iconic limestone/plaster bust of her found in...
Aswan temple, completed by Ramses II of the Ramessid Dynasty.  Source: Konstantin / Adobe Stock

The Ramessid Dynasty: A Golden Era in Ancient Egypt

Throughout its very long history, ancient Egypt's fate has always been decided by the great ruling dynasties. A powerful state and empire needs an equally powerful ruler, and ever since the...
The underground tunnel found beneath Taposiris Magna. Credit: Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

Underground Tunnel Found Beneath Egyptian Temple May Lead to Cleopatra

The Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities have announced the incredible discovery of a rock-cut tunnel deep below ground in the area of the Taposiris Magna Temple, west of Alexandria in Egypt...
Left: The corridor leading to the Antechamber of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Right: The moment Tutankhamun’s shrine was opened revealing his sarcophagus. (Public Domain).

28 ORIGINAL Photos from the Discovery of Tutankhamun’s Tomb

November 4, 2022, marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, a watershed moment for the world of archaeology. The spectacular nature of...
Relief of Mentuhotep II and the Goddess Hathor, circa 2010-2000 BC Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Mentuhotep II and the Emergence of the Middle Kingdom

The iconic ancient Egyptians are perhaps the best and grandest example of an ancient civilization that was both technologically advanced and spiritually rich. It was during the Archaic Period that...
Tutankhamun’s condom.	Source: Cairo Museum, Egypt

Tutankhamun Used Condoms Made from Oil-Soaked Linen

When Tutankhamun’s tomb was first discovered in 1922, archaeologist Howard Carter was stunned by the astonishing array of grave goods – more than 5,000 artifacts were left for the boy king to use in...
Cleopatra. Source: Lumixera / Adobe Stock

Not Just a Pretty Face: Cleopatra Was a Genius Who Spoke 9 Languages

Cleopatra VII (69 – 30 BC) was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt and its last active ruler. Most famous for her love affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar, Roman propaganda was quick to...