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A Hippopotamus. Source: Aintschie / Adobe Stock.

Hunting Hippos Was a Royal Sport in Ancient Egypt

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To the modern observer, the hippopotamus might seem a curious creature - large and often languid in its watery habitat. However, in ancient Egypt, the hippo was regarded as one of the most ferocious beasts, a symbol of power and destruction. Given their aggressive nature and sheer size, hippos were dangerous adversaries, capable of destroying crops and even boats.

Hunting as a Symbol of Dominance

Hunting hippos became a royal sport, reserved for the elite and the pharaohs. It wasn't merely an act of bravado or a display of physical prowess. Instead, it was imbued with deep symbolic significance. By hunting and overpowering these massive creatures, the pharaoh demonstrated his might and his ability to control and vanquish chaos, represented by the hippo. This was especially important in a civilization that revered order (Ma'at) and continually sought balance.

Frescoes and reliefs from various dynasties depict the pharaohs in their chariots, harpoons in hand, pursuing the mighty hippopotamus. The imagery is powerful: the ruler of Egypt, the embodiment of the state and its divine protector, taking on a force of nature.

Hippopotamus hunt, engraving. (Morphart / Adobe Stock)

Hippopotamus hunt, engraving. (Morphart / Adobe Stock)

The Rituals and the Reverence

Hippo hunts were not mere expeditions; they were events surrounded by ritual. Before embarking on a hunt, ceremonies would be conducted to invoke protection and success. These rituals were overseen by priests and were of great importance to ensure the pharaoh's safety.

While the hippo was hunted and seen as a symbol of chaos, it was also respected. The ancient Egyptians were keen observers of nature, and they recognized the strength and power of the hippopotamus. In a way, the hunt was also a means of paying homage to this magnificent creature. The Egyptian god Taweret, for example, who was depicted with a head resembling a hippo, was revered and worshipped.

The tales of these hunts, along with the symbolic meanings attached to them, have been immortalized in the annals of Egyptian art and literature. Temples and tombs carry depictions of triumphant pharaohs with their catch, a testament to their might and their role as defenders of order against the chaos of the natural world.

Top image: A Hippopotamus. Source: Aintschie / Adobe Stock.

By Joanna Gillan


Stunkel, I. (2017). Hippopotami in Ancient Egypt. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Available from:

Curious Egyptologist (2021). Hippopotami in Ancient Egypt. Available from:

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Joanna Gillan is a Co-Owner, Editor and Writer of Ancient Origins. 

Joanna completed a Bachelor of Science (Psychology) degree in Australia and published research in the field of Educational Psychology. She has a rich and varied career, ranging from teaching... Read More

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