The Middle Kingdom period covers the time between the end of the First Intermediate Period around 2055 BC and the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period around 1782 BC. It was a time of political and cultural resurgence, during which the Egyptians reestablished a strong centralized government and experienced a great flourishing of art, literature, and culture.
The Middle Kingdom period began with the reunification of Egypt under the pharaoh Mentuhotep II, who established the 11th Dynasty and ushered in a period of stability and prosperity. The Middle Kingdom pharaohs enjoyed great power and wealth, and they oversaw the construction of many impressive structures, including temples, palaces, and fortresses.
The Middle Kingdom was also a time of great artistic and literary achievement. The Egyptians produced some of their most famous works of art and literature during this period, including the Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary spells and rituals that were inscribed on coffins and sarcophagi, and the Tale of Sinuhe, a famous story about an Egyptian courtier who flees to Syria.
In this section, we will explore the key events and developments of Egypt's Middle Kingdom period, including the reigns of some of its most famous pharaohs, such as Amenemhat I, Senusret III, and Amenemhat III. We will examine the cultural and artistic achievements of the period, and we will explore the social, economic, and political conditions that allowed Ancient Egyptian civilization to flourish during this time.