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Ancient Origins Tour IRAQ

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Roman Architecture & Engineering

The ancient Romans were renowned for their architectural and engineering achievements, from the construction of monumental buildings and infrastructure to the development of sophisticated aqueducts and road systems. Explore the technological innovations and design principles that defined Roman architecture and engineering.

Extensive floor mosaics uncovered at the site at İncesu, Cappadocia.	Source: Kayseri Municipality

Vast and Mesmerizing Floor Mosaic Unearthed in Cappadocian Villa

A floor mosaic covering a whopping area of 600 square meters has been uncovered during excavations in Cappadocia, in the heart of Turkey. Ongoing excavations at the site, believed to be the remnants...
Dr Murray Cook (bottom left) and other members of the dig with the remains of the ancient Roman Road in Stirling, Scotland. Source: Stirling Council

Most Important Road in Scottish History Found in Stirling

Archaeologists digging in Stirling, Scotland’s ancient capital, have unearthed a section of Roman road in the garden of a 17th century drovers inn. This ancient track, unlike all others, was later...
Limestone bust from a Palmyrene funerary relief; double bust of man and his wife; she is veiled with the fillet; wears drop ear-rings and two long curls of hair; holds in left hand distaff and spindle; he wears a toga and holds a strip of writing material in his right hand; inscription; 2 ll. Inscription: OYIPIA ( ) OIBH () AIOCOYIIOC () KIMOC - Viria Phoebe and Gaius Vurus. Left: Bust of a noblewoman nicknamed "Beauty of Palmyra” Copenhagen, Denmark.	Source:  Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany/CC BY-SA

Palmyra Busts - A Window into the Ancient Palmyra’s Customs

Throughout history, many ethnicities and civilizations were often distinguished by their funerary beliefs and burial customs. From the Egyptian pyramids to the Neolithic Passage tombs, burial always...
Archaeologists work on the ancient Upper-Level Second Temple Period Aqueduct, which provided the city with fresh water.      Source: Emil Aladjem/IAA

Second Temple Period Aqueduct Unearthed in Jerusalem

A 300-meter (984.25 ft) section of a late Second Temple Period aqueduct has been found in Jerusalem, illuminating ancient Roman engineering. The aqueduct's design reveals the innovation of that era,...
Excavations in Sarsina have uncovered the remains of a stunning Capitolium Temple. Source: Ministero della Cultura

Massive First-Century Capitolium Temple Identified in Northern Italy

From under the quiet north Italian town of Sarsina, archaeologists have unearthed an enormous Capitolium temple built by the Romans in the 1st century BC. Found in an exceptional state of...
Roman soldiers marching along a Roman road. Source: mehaniq41/Adobe Stock

Extensive Roman Road Network Covering Devon and Cornwall Revealed in UK

A Roman road network crossing Devon and Cornwall in the UK connecting significant settlements with military forts across the two counties as well as wider Britannia has been revealed for the first...
Ruin of a second-century public toilet in Roman Ostia.

Rats, Exploding Toilet Seats and Demons of the Deep: The Hazards of Roman Sewers

I have spent an awful lot of time in Roman sewers – enough to earn me the nickname Queen of Latrines from my friends. The Etruscans laid the first underground sewers in the city of Rome around 500 BC...
Top Image: Speleologists explore the Aqua Augusta, a Roman aqueduct that was previously the least-documented aqueduct in the Roman world. Source: Associazione Cocceius

Uncharted Section of Augustan Aqueduct Discovered Beneath Naples

Built in the early first century BC during the Augustan era in Naples, Italy, the “Aqua Augusta” is one of the largest and most sophisticated aqueducts in the Roman Empire. Now, a previously unknown...
This 2,000-year-old villa had luxurious ancient Roman underfloor heating. Source: Karl-Josef Hildenbrand/dpa

2,000-Year-Old Roman Villa Found in Germany had Luxurious Underfloor Heating

In 15 BC the Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, and his brother Tiberius attacked, subdued, and destroyed a Celtic settlement and founded the city of Cambodunum. Today, the foundations of...
An excavation trench showing a pillar of the unfinished Roman aqueduct now mapped out in Armenia by researchers from the Armenian-German Artaxata Project hosted at University of Münster.

Roman Empire’s Eastern-most Aqueduct Found Half Finished in Armenia

“The most easterly arched aqueduct of the Roman Empire” was found in the Hellenistic royal city of Artashat-Artaxata, the large, commercial capital of ancient Armenia between the 2nd century BC and...
Built to Last: The Craftsmanship that Enabled Roman Roads to Withstand the Passage of Time

Built to Last: The Secret that Enabled Roman Roads to Withstand the Passage of Time

The Romans were renowned as great engineers and this is evident in the many structures that they left behind. One particular type of construction that the Romans were famous for is their roads. It...
Unique 2,000-Year-Old Roman Road Accidentally Uncovered in Worcestershire

Unique 2,000-Year-Old Roman Road Accidentally Uncovered in Worcestershire

What is thought to be a Roman road, potentially dating back 2,000 years, has been uncovered in a field in Worcestershire in the UK. An expert has assessed it to likely be a cobbled ford, and the...
Roman Bridge Pont du Gard in France. Credit: JackF / Adobe Stock

6 Ways Roman Engineers Were Way Ahead of Their Time

Ancient Roman engineers were able to construct many different kinds of remarkable structures which have stood the test to time. In many places around the world we can still see and admire their...
Cordoba, Spain Skyline         Source: SeanPavonePhoto/ Adobe Stock

The Roman Bridge of Cordoba that Transported Armies, and Spans Time

Ancient structures often tell us a great deal about the history of a region or country. They reveal what materials were available, the culture and beliefs of the people, and which nations, if any,...
Examining the Impressive Ancient Roman Walls of Lugo

Examining the Impressive Ancient Roman Walls of Lugo

The territory of Galicia in Spain was conquered by the Romans c. 61 BC. The army led by Julius Caesar changed the beautiful scenery of this part of the Iberian Peninsula forever. Over the centuries,...
The passage of carts over decades could cause ruts (like the one shown), particularly in high-traffic areas of Pompeii.

Romans in Pompeii Repaired the Roads with Molten Iron

The buried city of Pompeii continues to provide many insights into Roman society , economy, and culture. The ash and pumice , that fell on Pompeii from Mount Vesuvius , froze the city in time. A...
Some of the oak planks unearthed in the foundations of the portico. These planks are an example of those used for building Rome.      Source: Soprintendenza Speciale Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio di Roma, Italy

Imported Timber is the Newly Discovered Secret to Building Rome

An analysis of some 2000-year-old planks of wood has provided amazing insights into the Roman Empire . Experts have been able to establish that timber found in the heart of Ancient Rome was imported...
Alatri acropolis cyclopean wall by the Porta Maggiorre. Source: Laura Tabone

The Cyclopean Problem: Who Built Italy’s Astounding Ancient Walls?

Megalithic cyclopean masonry is found in many parts of Italy, including Lazio , Abruzzo, Campania, Umbria, Tuscany and Molise. This type of masonry involves fitting together huge differently shaped...
The Russian Compound excavation site in central Jerusalem and the Roman siege engine ballista stones found there, which were then used to plot the launch location of the projectiles. Source: Yoli Schwartz / Israel Antiquities Authority

Roman Siege Engines Tracked and Traced in Jerusalem

An Israeli archaeologist has been digging up and plotting the location of big roundish rocks in a specific area of ancient Jerusalem. But these are no building blocks, quite the opposite. They were...
Alexander driving off elephants with war pigs and musical instruments in a detail from a French illuminated manuscript from 1420’. Source: The British Library / CC BY 4.0)

War Pigs: A Flaming History of Nature’s Cutest Creations in Battle

Throughout human history, animals have been effectively domesticated and used as an extension of the territorial desires of human beings. While dogs and cattle became effective elements in the...
The Roman Colosseum’s architecture remains awe-inspiring today, with more still to be learned. Source: daliu / Adobe Stock

The Mind-Blowing Architecture and Engineering of Rome’s Colosseum

The Roman Colosseum is one of the most famous and impressive ancient sites still in existence today. Every year, millions of tourists flock to see it, and it has been dubbed one of the ‘New Seven...
Right; A large-area elemental map of a 2 cm fragment of ancient Roman concrete showing a calcium-rich lime clast (in red), which is responsible for the unique self-healing properties in this ancient material. Left; The archaeological site of Privernum, Italy where the sample was collected. Source: Masic et al./MIT News Office

Why Was Roman Concrete So Durable? Scientists Say It Could Heal Itself

Materials scientists have been working with archaeologists and historians for many years, attempting to unlock the fascinating secrets of Roman Empire concrete-making technologies and techniques,...
Roman emperor in Rome. Source: Giordano Aita / Adobe Stock.

Walking in the Footsteps of Ancient Romans: A Tour of Rome's Streets and Buildings (Video)

The ancient city of Rome was a marvel of architecture and engineering , with impressive buildings that still inspire awe today. The Colosseum , with its massive amphitheater that could hold up to 80,...
The Arch and Rotunda, Remains of a Vast Palace Complex Built by Galerius

The Arch and Rotunda, Remains of a Vast Palace Complex Built by Galerius

One thing gastronomists, sun worshipers and historians can agree on is that Greece has more than a little of something for everyone. Regarded as the birthplace of democracy and the cradle of Western...

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