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Built to Last: The Craftsmanship that Enabled Roman Roads to Withstand the Passage of Time

Built to Last: The Secret that Enabled Roman Roads to Withstand the Passage of Time


The Romans were renowned as great engineers and this is evident in the many structures that they left behind. One particular type of construction that the Romans were famous for is their roads. It was these roads, which the Romans called viae, that enabled them to build and maintain their empire. How did they create this infrastructure that has withstood the passing of time better than most its modern counterparts?

Roads of All Kinds

It has been calculated that the network of Roman roads covered a distance of over 400,000 km (248,548.47 miles), with more than 120,000 km (74,564.54 miles) of this being of the type known as ‘public roads’. Spreading across the Romans’ vast empire from Great Britain in the north to Morocco in the south, and from Portugal in the west to Iraq in the East, they allowed people and goods to travel quickly from one part of the empire to another.

The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138), showing the network of main Roman roads.

The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138), showing the network of main Roman roads. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

The Romans classified their roads into several types. The most important of these were the viae publicae (public roads), followed by the viae militares (military roads), then the actus (local roads), and finally the privatae (private roads). The first of these were the widest, and reached up to 12 meters (39.37 ft.) in width. Military roads were maintained by the army, and private roads were built by individual landowners.

Two examples of ancient Roman roads: one at Leptis Magna, Libya (top) (CC BY-SA 3.0) and another at Santa Àgueda, Minorca (Spain) (bottom). (Public Domain)

Two examples of ancient Roman roads: one at Leptis Magna, Libya (top) ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) and another at Santa Àgueda, Minorca (Spain) (bottom). ( Public Domain )

Constructing Roads to Last

There was no ‘one-size-fits-all’ Roman technique for building roads. Their construction varied depending on the terrain and the local building materials that were available. For example, different solutions were required to build roads over marshy areas and steep ground. Nevertheless, there are certain standard rules that were followed.

Scene on Trajan's Column showing Romans felling trees for road construction.

Scene on Trajan's Column showing Romans felling trees for road construction. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Roman roads consisted of three layers – a foundation layer on the bottom, a middle layer, and a surface layer on the top. The foundation layer often consisted of stones or earth. Other materials used to form this layer included: rough gravel, crushed bricks, clay material, and even piles of wood when roads were being built over swampy areas. The following layer would be composed of softer materials such as sand or fine gravel. This layer may have been formed by several successive layers. Finally, the surface was made using gravel, which was occasionally mixed with lime.

For more prominent areas, such as those close to cities, roads were made more impressive by having the surface layer built using blocks of stone (which depended on the local material available, and may have consisted of volcanic tuff, limestone, basalt, etc.) or cobbles. The center of the road sloped to the sides to allow water to drain off the surface into drainage ditches. These ditches also served to define the road in areas where enemies could use the surrounding terrain for ambushes.

Possible layers in a Roman road.

Possible layers in a Roman road. ( Crystalinks)

Pathways to Trade and Cultural Exchange

Roads played a crucial role in the Roman Empire. For a start, the roads allowed people and goods to move swiftly across the empire. For example, in 9 BC, using these roads, the future emperor Tiberius was able to travel almost 350 km (217.48 miles) in 24 hours to be by the side of his dying brother, Drusus. This also meant that Roman troops could be deployed rapidly to various parts of the empire in the event of an emergency, i.e. internal revolts or external threats. Apart from allowing the Roman army to outmaneuver their enemies, the existence of these roads also reduced the need for large and costly garrisons throughout the empire.

In addition to serving a military purpose, the roads constructed by the Romans also enabled trade and cultural exchange to occur. The via Traiana Nova (known before that as the via Regia ), for instance, was built on an ancient trade route that connected Egypt and Syria, and it continued serving this purpose during the Roman period. One of the factors that allowed such roads to facilitate trade is the fact that they were patrolled by the Roman army, which meant that merchants were protected from bandits and highwaymen. Another function of roads in the Roman world is perhaps an ideological one. These roads may be interpreted as a mark left by the Romans in the landscape, signifying their conquest of the terrain and the local population.

Illustration of Roman soldiers patrolling or traveling on a road.

Illustration of Roman soldiers patrolling or traveling on a road. ( Crystalinks)

Top image: Left: A 2,000-year-old Roman road, Lancashire, England ( BBC). Right: A modern-day road full of potholes ( thisismoney.co.uk).

By Wu Mingren


Andrews, E., 2014. 8 Ways Roads Helped Rome Rule the Ancient World. [Online]
Available at: http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/8-ways-roads-helped-rome-rule-the-ancient-world

Jones, C., 2011. Roman Roads. [Online]
Available at: http://www.battleoffulford.org.uk/ev_roman_rd_constrct.htm

White, C., 2015. The Beautiful Network of Ancient Roman Roads. [Online]
Available at: http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-beautiful-network-of-ancient-roman-roads

www.crystalinks.com, 2017. Roads in Ancient Rome. [Online]
Available at: http://www.crystalinks.com/romeroads.html

www.unrv.com, 2017. Roman Road Construction. [Online]
Available at: http://www.unrv.com/culture/roman-road-construction.php



Pete Wagner's picture

Interesting, the layering, which entails a lot of work, and thus obviously designed and intended for VERY heavy weight loads.  This should make us wonder IF the Romans really built these.  If the Romans really did, which would have required a lot of slave labor and logistics, what heavy loads were they planning to move?  I would suggest otherwise, that like the major ruins themselves, these massive stoneworks were the work of the aboriginal culture that was wiped out (suddenly) by the calamity that brought on the Ice Age.  But then same question, why would the aboriginals need roads that could carry such a heavy weight?  That answer also clears up other questions!  They would have build these roads primarily for their massive wagon carts, pulled by their massive Mammoths, to haul the massive stones for their megalith stoneworks.  It would be the only way to move the huge stones from the quarry sites to the construction sites.  In fact, there are some fossilized cart tracks, in Turkey and other places, that show elephant-like footprints between the tracks.  The only plausible explanation for the fossilization of those tracks is that they were made through the mud (expediently it would seem, not on a developed road), and froze quickly, probably at the very start of the Age Ice, which began suddenly some 120-130k years ago, and remained frozen under ice and snow for thousands of years, rendering them sandstone.  

Nobody gets paid to tell the truth.

Understand what you are saying. Wouldn't stand up to tractor trailers, etc. However, there are a lot of small highways that still are used by people and cars built by the Romans. I remembered traveling on the Appian way portion in Naples, IT. and looked it up.

Might want to look at this slide show:


Comparing Roman roads to modern ones is hardly a fair comparison. Roman roads had foot traffic, riders, and carts. Modern roads have cars, lorries, and buses thundering over them at high speed. I think Roman roads would disintegrate rapidly, under that kind of pressure!

riparianfrstlvr's picture

they may not have been built by union labor, or diesel powered earth movers, but they are still here made by back breaking hard work, and they are just as complex as far as the various underlayments.


The Secret that Enabled Roman Roads to Withstand the Passage of Time??
Oh that's an easy one. It's the absence of Union labor...

dhwty's picture


Wu Mingren (‘Dhwty’) has a Bachelor of Arts in Ancient History and Archaeology. Although his primary interest is in the ancient civilizations of the Near East, he is also interested in other geographical regions, as well as other time periods.... Read More

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