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Cincinnatus chosen as dictator. Painting by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli, 1655-1658.

A Model of Civic Virtue: The Dictator Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus

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Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus is a figure from the Early Republican period of Rome’s history. Cincinnatus (a nickname given to him due to his curly hair) was an aristocrat who belonged to the patrician class. His primary job was that of a farmer, though he also served, with great efficiency, as consul and, later on, dictator (on two separate occasions, to be precise). In this latter office, Cincinnatus was given near-absolute authority. Nevertheless, due to his conduct whilst occupying this post, especially his immediate resignation once the crises that elevated him to such a position of power had passed, Cincinnatus is remembered as a model of civic virtue.

Cincinnatus’ Early Days

It is unclear when Cincinnatus was born, though we may assume that he lived during the 5 th century BC, as we know that he was appointed as a consul of the Roman Republic in 460 BC. In Livy’s History of Rome , Cincinnatus is first introduced in relation to his son, Caeso Quinctius. Livy describes Caeso as such:

“Caeso was a member of the Quinctian house, and his noble descent and great bodily strength and stature made him a daring and intrepid young man. To these gifts of the gods he added brilliant military qualities and eloquence as a public speaker, so that no one in the State was held to surpass him either in speech or action. When he took his stand in the middle of a group of patricians, conspicuous amongst them all, carrying as it were in his voice and personal strength all dictatorships and consulships combined, he was the one to withstand the attacks of the tribunes and the storms of popular indignation.”

Cincinnatus leaves the plow for the Roman dictatorship – Juan Antonio Ribera, c. 1806

Cincinnatus leaves the plow for the Roman dictatorship – Juan Antonio Ribera, c. 1806 ( Public Domain )

Livy goes on to say that Caeso and his men frequently chased the tribunes of the plebeians from the Forum, thus making it difficult for them to partake in the political life of the republic:

“Under his leadership the tribunes were often driven from the Forum, the plebeians routed and chased away, anybody who stood in his way went off stripped and beaten.”

Caeso’s Trial

Caeso’s behavior was seen as a threat to the Law, and he was finally impeached on a capital charge by Aulus Verginius. One of the people recorded by Livy to have spoken on Caeso’s behalf on the day of his trial was his father, Cincinnatus:

“Among those who spoke for him was his father, L. Quinctius Cincinnatus. He did not go over all his merits again, for fear of aggravating the feeling against him, but he pleaded for indulgence to the errors of youth; he himself had never injured any one either by word or deed, and for his own sake he implored them to pardon his son.”

Caeso was then released on bail, and “went the following night into exile amongst the Tuscans.” The trial, nevertheless, continued, and as Caeso was absent, Cincinnatus was forced to pay up,

“The money was unmercifully extorted from the father, who had to sell all his property and live for some time like a banished man in an out-of-the-way hut on the other side of the Tiber.”

Statue of Cincinnatus by Denis Foyatier, in the Tuileries Garden, Paris.

Statue of Cincinnatus by Denis Foyatier, in the Tuileries Garden, Paris. (CC BY-SA 2.0 FR )

Rome’s Appointed Saver

A year after Caeso’s trial, Cincinnatus was elected as consul, and he held this office for the appointed year. After his tenure had ended, he returned to his farm. Shortly after this, in 458 BC, Rome was at war with its Latin neighbors, namely the Sabines and the Aequi. Rome was losing the war, as an army under the command of Consul Minucius, which was sent against the Aequi, was trapped by them instead. Furthermore, the Sabines were fast approaching the walls of Rome. It was during this emergency that Cincinnatus was appointed as a dictator to save Rome from destruction.

According to the ancient sources, the senators who were sent to inform Cincinnatus of his appointment found him working in the field. In Florus’ The Epitome of Rome History , for example, it is written that:

“It happened to be the middle of the season of sowing, when the lictor found the patrician actually at work bending over the plough.”

This can also be seen in Dionysius of Halicarnassus’ Roman Antiquities :

“Fabius, the prefect of the city, sent men to invite Quintius to come and assume his magistracy. It chanced that Quintius was on this occasion also engaged in some work of husbandry”

Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus. ( Public Domain )

Livy too provides the same story:

“There he was found by the deputation from the senate either digging out a ditch or ploughing, at all events, as is generally agreed, intent on his husbandry.”

Rather than feeling pleased that he was given such an honor, it seemed that Cincinnatus was rather annoyed with the appointment. Dionysius, for instance, had these words put into Cincinnatus’ mouth,

“This year's crop too will be ruined, then, because of my official duties, and we shall all go dreadfully hungry.”

Without wasting any time, Cincinnatus began and concluded his campaign against Rome’s enemies in just 15 days, after which he resigned and returned to his fields. Florus, for example, wrote this:

“Setting out thence to the battle-field, in order that he might keep up the tradition of his rustic employment, he made his conquered enemies pass like cattle under the yoke. The campaign being concluded, this farmer who had enjoyed a triumph returned to his oxen, and, ye Heavens, with what speed! For the war was begun and finished within fifteen days, so that it seemed for all the world as if the dictator had hurried back to finish the work which he had left.”

Ahala, master of the horse, presents the dead Maelius to Cincinnatus, fresco by Beccafumi at the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena.

Ahala, master of the horse, presents the dead Maelius to Cincinnatus, fresco by Beccafumi at the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. ( Public Domain )

Cincinnatus was once again appointed as dictator in 439 BC to solve another crisis that Rome was facing. Like his first dictatorship, Cincinnatus held on to his position only as long as it was required to resolve the problem. It is due to such virtues – modesty, leadership, selfless service to Rome, and the lack of personal ambition, that Cincinnatus became a model of civic virtue.

Featured image: Cincinnatus chosen as dictator. Painting by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli, 1655-1658. Photo source: CC BY 2.5

By Wu Mingren

References

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities [Online]
[Cary, E. (trans.), 1937-50. Dionysius of Halicarnassus’ Roman Antiquities .]
Available at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/home.html

Florus, Epitome of Roman History [Online]
[Forster, E. S. (trans.), 1929. Florus’ Epitome of Roman History .]
Available at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Florus/Epitome/home.html

Gill, N., 2014. Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. [Online]
Available at: http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/rulersleaderskings/p/Cincinnatus.htm

Knight, J. B., 2010. Cincinnatus – the hero who saved Rome. [Online]
Available at: http://www.historyinanhour.com/2010/07/06/cincinnatus-summary/

Livy, History of Rome [Online]
[Roberts, W. M., (trans.), 1905. Livy’s History of Rome .]
Available at: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/

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