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Ancient Origins Tour IRAQ

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Roman Colonization & Expansion

The expansion of the Roman Empire had a profound impact on the ancient world, both in terms of its political and economic power and the spread of its culture and language. Discover the history of Roman colonization and expansion, it successes and failures, from its early beginnings to its eventual decline and fall.

Archaeologists survey the area near Trafalgar Square, London.        Source: © Archaeology South-East

Saxon ‘London’ Was Bigger Than Previously Thought

In a remarkable archaeological endeavor, the team from Archaeology South-East, a division of the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has made groundbreaking discoveries beneath the National Gallery at the...
Building blocks reclaimed from the ruins of the Roman legion base at Tel Megiddo.                Source: IAA

Archaeologists Unearth Largest Roman Legion Base in Israel

Archaeologists excavating at the foot of Tel Megiddo in Israel have uncovered “the largest Roman base” ever discovered in the country. Here, during the Roman occupation of Judea, a colony of highly-...
The Roman-era egg was cast into a watery pit, possibly as part of a funeral rite. Source: Oxford Archaeology.

1,700-year-old Egg Found at Roman Era Site Still Has Liquid Contents

An extraordinary discovery in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, has stunned archaeologists and scientists worldwide: a 1,700-year-old egg, is the only intact specimen from Roman Britain, and now considered...
The Roman city at Silchester with grid road system and building locations map overlaid. Source: University of Reading

Beneath Roman Britain - An Iron Age Settlement Is Revealed At Silchester

Five decades on from the start of an archaeological dig by the University of Reading, the findings of the investigation will be brought to the public, showcasing the incredible discoveries from...
Various shots of the mosaic now confirmed dated to the 5th century at Chedworth Roman Villa. Source: Stephen Haywood/Ian Shaw/ © National Trust Images

Roman Mosaic Date Brightens Up Britain’s Dark Ages in More Ways Than One

Rome wasn’t built in a day, but it’s popularly believed that its fall to ‘barbaric’ forces by the beginning of the 5th century, plunged all of Europe into a ‘Dark Age’, where towns and villas...
A computer-generated image of the battle that is thought to have taken place on a remote mountainside south of Chur around 15 BC between Roman troops advancing northwards through the Alps and local Suanetes. Source: Courtesy of Leona Detig

Lost Roman Battlefield in Switzerland Discovered Through Thousands of Artifacts

In 2019, a spectacular Roman dagger was metal detected in a remote region of the Swiss Alps. Now, a team of scientists and students have mapped a 2,000-year-old Roman battlefield representing the...
The Roman aqueduct that supplied water to Viminacium, a large city on the Roman frontier, Serbia.	Source: Carles Lalueza-Foz/Cell

How the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire Shifted Populations

Despite the Roman Empire's extensive military and cultural influence on the nearby Balkan peninsula, a DNA analysis of individuals who lived in the region between 1 and 1000 AD found no genetic...
Boudicca became the warrior queen who led a revolt against Roman rule in ancient Britain. Source: NorLife/Adobe Stock

Boudicca: The Truth Behind the British Legend (Video)

Boudicca, the enigmatic warrior queen of the Iceni, has become a legendary figure in British history. Her rebellion against the Roman Empire, shrouded in the accounts of historians Tacitus and...
Aerial image of Danebury Fort, an Iron Age hillfort in Hampshire, England. Source: Hampshire Hub and University of Southampton/OGL v1.0OGL v1.0

Danebury Fort, the Formidable Home of Iron Age Britons

Danebury Fort, also known simply as Danebury, is an Iron Age hillfort located in Hampshire, England. It is one of the most extensively studied hillforts in Britain and is known for its archaeological...
The building floor plans formerly belonged to rectangular cult buildings made of clay framework at the Haltern Roman camp in Germany. Source: LWL / C. Hentzelt

Sacred Surprises: Unearthing Twin Temples at the Haltern Roman Camp

During the Roman wars with the Celtic tribes of ancient Europe, when they acquired new lands, they built forts, defensive walls and temples. Now, a team of archaeologists in Germany have made the...
Dr Murray Cook (bottom left) and other members of the dig with the remains of the ancient Roman Road in Stirling, Scotland. Source: Stirling Council

Most Important Road in Scottish History Found in Stirling

Archaeologists digging in Stirling, Scotland’s ancient capital, have unearthed a section of Roman road in the garden of a 17th century drovers inn. This ancient track, unlike all others, was later...
A sample of Poidebard’s (1934) aerial photographs: A) fort at Qreiye; B) Roman fort and medieval caravanserai at Birke; C) fort at Tell Zenbil; and D) castellum at Tell Brak.

Declassified Cold War Spy Satellite Images Reveal Roman Forts In Syria and Iraq

In their examination of aerial photographs from the 1960s and 70s, archaeologists have identified 396 uncharted Roman forts in the Syrian and Iraqi regions along the Syrian steppe, from “the world’s...
Several timbers thought to be from a fragmented Roman crossing structure for the River Wye. 	Source: Simon Maddison/CAS

2,000-Year-Old Roman Crossing Linking England and Wales Uncovered

A bridge connecting past and present – in this case the ancient past, has been found crossing the River Wye at Chepstow in the UK, often called the ‘gateway to Wales’. Archaeologists made the find...
Two new fragments of Roman chronicle ‘Fasti Ostienses’ have been unearthed in the Ostia Antica Archaeological Park.	Source: Italian Ministry of Culture

Roman Chronicle Fragments Offer a New Glimpse of Emperor Hadrian’s Agenda

2,400 years ago, at the mouth of the Tiber River, the Romans established an armed camp and settlement known as Ostia Antica. Eventually transforming into “a flourishing commercial center”, it became...
Roman soldiers marching along a Roman road. Source: mehaniq41/Adobe Stock

Extensive Roman Road Network Covering Devon and Cornwall Revealed in UK

A Roman road network crossing Devon and Cornwall in the UK connecting significant settlements with military forts across the two counties as well as wider Britannia has been revealed for the first...
Archaeologist found ruins of the lost city of Titiakos, dating back to more than 2000 years ago, in Deza, Soria in Spain. Source: (Perez, E.S. et all/ Archaeological & Anthropological Sciences)

The Lost City of Titiakos: Ruins of Celtiberian Stronghold From 2,000 Years Ago Discovered in Spain

In the midst of excavations in north-central Spain’s Soria province, archaeologists stumbled upon the remarkable discoveries of a Roman camp and the ruins of the 2,000-year-old ancient Celtiberian...
A Roman legion. Source: mehaniq41 / Adobe Stock.

A Brief History of Roman Britain: A Land Transformed

For the Romans, ancient Britain was the final frontier. Situated at the edge of the known world at the time, it was a symbol for the ultimate expansion of the Roman Empire. Conquering it meant...
An AI generated Roman Legion, representative of Legio X Fretensis. Source: Noel Cook/ Adobe Stock

Coins Dug Up in Georgia Expose Dirty Work of Legendary Legio X Fretensis

Archaeologists in Georgia have discovered a hoard of ancient coins, which had symbols punched into their faces long after they were created. When the researchers learned the nature of the symbols,...
Roman ship ramming a Carthaginian ship. Naval battles were key in the First Punic War. Source: Massimo Todaro/Adobe Stock

Rome vs. Carthage: The First Punic War and the Birth of a Superpower

The First Punic War was a brutal conflict that pitted two of the greatest powers of the ancient world against each other. With the might of Rome on one side and the naval supremacy of Carthage on the...
Ostia Antica the first Roman colony. Source: Ioannis Syrigos.

Ostia Antica: The First Roman Colony

Ostia Antica is an archaeological site located on the outskirts of Rome . Although the Romans referred to the site as Ostia, this article will use the term Ostia Antica, so as to avoid confusion with...
Deriv; Left, Roman legionnaire reenactor in period gear. Right, Jabbaren rock painting (Via author)

The Giant of Algeria: Iconographic Evidence of Roman Expeditions in the Sahara

There are thousands of rock engravings at the dramatic rocky landscape of Jabbaren, Algeria. Jabbaren is an archaeological site in the Tassili N'ajjer National Park in Algeria with some of the most...
The remains of the Roman marching camp were uncovered during building work. Source: GUARD Archaeology Ltd / Fair Use.

Evidence Of New Route Into Scotland For Roman Invasion Attempt

A school playing field in Ayrshire , in the west of Scotland, has provided archaeologists with multiple layers of archaeology topped with a Roman marching camp used in the Roman conquest of Scotland...
Archaeologists in the Netherlands have discovered a rare Roman canal and Roman road near Nijmegen. Source: RAAP

Buried Roman Canal and Road Unearthed in the Netherlands

Archaeologists from the Dutch consultancy firm RAAP have unearthed a 2,000-year-old Roman highway and canal not far from the city of Nijmegen in the Netherlands . The buried highway and Roman canal...
An aerial view of the 2,100-year-old Roman camp of Lomba do Mouro at Melgaço, Portugal. 	Source: University of Exeter

Oldest Roman Camp of Northern Hispania Found in Portugal

A vast 10,000-man Roman camp has been discovered in northern Portugal. Not only is it one of the biggest ever discovered, but it’s also the oldest ever discovered in northern Hispania (the name of...

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