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Roman Kingdom

The foundation of the Kingdom of Rome is a legendary event that marks the beginning of Rome's history and the birth of one of the greatest civilizations in the world.

According to myth, Rome was founded in 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who were said to have been raised by a she-wolf after being abandoned as infants.

However, archaeological evidence suggests that the origins of Rome are much more complex and multifaceted, with the city's early history shaped by a variety of social, economic, and political factors.

In this section, we include articles relating to the legend of the foundation of Rome, as well as the historical context in which the city emerged, and the consequent history of the kingdom period.
During the kingdom period, there were seven legendary kings of Rome, and the subjects of the kingdom were predominantly Latin tribes.

Here are the names of the legendary kings of Rome and a brief description of their reign:

  1. Romulus (753-717 BC): Legendary founder of Rome, who established the city's first settlement and its institutions.
  1. Numa Pompilius (717-673 BC): A wise king who established many of Rome's religious and legal customs.
  1. Tullus Hostilius (673-641 BC): A militaristic king who expanded Rome's territory through conquest.
  1. Ancus Marcius (641-616 BC): A just king who built many of Rome's public works, including the first bridge across the Tiber River.
  1. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (616-578 BC): A foreign-born king who is said to have introduced many Greek cultural practices to Rome.
  1. Servius Tullius (578-535 BC): A reform-minded king who reorganized Rome's social and political structures.
  1. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535-509 BC): The last king of Rome, who ruled as a tyrant and was overthrown by the Roman Republic.

Note that the historical accuracy of these kings and their reigns is debated among scholars, and much of what is known about the ancient kingdom of Rome comes from later literary sources and archaeological evidence.

Rome, Italy: The Roman Forum. Source: krivinis/Adobe Stock

Roman Origins: Did Romulus Really Found Rome? (Video)

The legendary founding of Rome revolves around two key figures, Romulus and Aeneas , whose stories intertwine with myth, geology, and archaeology. According to tradition, Romulus , saved by shepherds...
Representational image of Tullus Hostilius. Source: Pixel Matrix / Adobe Stock

Fact or Fiction? Tullus Hostilius, the Legendary Roman Warrior King

Tullus Hostilius, the third legendary king of Rome, is a figure shrouded in myth and legend. Hostilius strictly adhered to the law and held firm beliefs regarding the importance of Roman religious...
Numa Pompilius giving the Laws to the Romans.  Source: Public Domain

Numa Pompilius: The Legendary Second King of Rome

Every great kingdom and empire have to start somewhere, right? One of history’s greatest realms was the Roman Empire, but even so, it began as a struggling city-state, supposedly led by kings. But...
Tullia drives her chariot over the body of her father, Servius Tullius. Painting by Jean Bardin, 1765.

Servius Tullius – The last benevolent king of Rome

Just a stone’s throw away from the bustling Termini station in the heart of Rome stands a section of an ancient wall. This wall is known as the Servian Wall, as it is believed to have been built...
Did Romulus, the legendary first king of Rome, (neurobite /Adobe Stock) really exist? (samott /Adobe Stock)

The Romulus Riddle: Did the Legendary First King of Rome Really Exist?

Recent excavations in Rome have re-ignited the debate over whether the legendary first king of Rome, Romulus, was a historical character or just a fanciful work of fiction. In fact, earlier this year...
Ruins of Roman Forum in Rome, Italy during sunrise. (twindesigner /Adobe Stock) Insert: Denarius featuring the laureate, long-haired, and bearded head of Quirinus (Romulus).

Experts May Have Identified the Long Lost Tomb of Romulus, Founder of Rome

Myths were very important in the ancient world. The Roman myth of Romulus and Remus is one such example and many believe that it is based on real-life events. Now experts claim that they may have...
Main: Roman Forum (Ivan Kurmyshov / Adobe Stock). Inset: Statue of Romulus and Remus in Rome (pict rider / Adobe Stock)

Tomb of Romulus, King Raised by a Wolf, Possibly Found in Roman Forum!

Archaeologists have unearthed a tomb beneath the Roman Forum that they think might be the resting place of the legendary Romulus, founder of Rome . In Roman mythology, Romulus and his twin brother...
Photo of the dome of the so-called Lupercal Cave, taken by a probe beneath the Domus Livia on the Palatine Hill, Rome, Italy.

The Lupercal Cave: A Refuge for Romulus and Remus and the Roman Festival of Lupercalia

The Lupercal Cave is a cave mentioned in the story of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of the city of Rome. Like many other legendary forefathers of ancient cities and societies, Romulus and...
The Seven Hills of Rome are considered to be located in the center of the city. Source: sborisov / Adobe Stock

The Seven Hills of Rome: Center Stage in Rome’s Eventful History

The Seven Hills of Rome are a group of hills to the east of the Tiber River, the main river within the city. These hills are important as they are considered the center of the city of Rome, and it...
Vestal Virgins Tending the Sacred Fire.

Vestal Virgins: Powerful Priestesses of Rome’s Sacred Flame

In the Res Gestae Divi Augustus (‘The Deeds of the Divine Augustus’), Augustus demonstrates his piety by stating that he was a member of all four major priesthoods in Rome – the Pontifices, Augures,...
Roman soldiers and their general.

Ruthless Rulers Did Dark Deeds Right From the Founding of Rome

According to history, the city of Rome was founded by Romulus in 753 BC. From then till the end of the 6 th century BC, Rome was ruled by kings after which it was transformed into a republic. In 27...
Romulus' Victory Over Acron’ (1812) by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. Romulus was the first Roman king.

The Seven Kings of Rome: Tumultuous Origins of the Roman Republic

In the beginning, there was only dirt and mud and twigs. Then came the legendary hero Aeneas, and from him descended the sons of Rhea Silva and Mars, the god of war. These sons were Romulus and Remus...
Lars Porsena: The Famous Etruscan Ruler Who Threatened Rome

Lars Porsena: The Famous Etruscan Ruler Who Threatened Rome

Lars Porsena was an Etruscan ruler mentioned in the earliest accounts of Roman history. His story is associated with Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last semi-legendary king of Rome. Lars...
Roman soldiers and their general (vukkostic / Adobe Stock)

The Roman Republic – Was It Truly A Republic?

The Roman Republic was the period in ancient Roman history that superseded the Roman Kingdom and preceded the Roman Empire. Traditionally, the founding of the Roman Republic is dated to 509 BC, when...