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Roman Chronology

The chronology of Ancient Rome divides this long history into standard periods used by historians, from its legendary foundation to its eventual decline and fall.

Rome's history spanned over a thousand years, from its humble beginnings as a small village on the banks of the Tiber River to its status as the dominant superpower of the ancient world. Along the way, Rome underwent numerous transformations, from a monarchy to a republic, to an empire, and faced many challenges, including wars, political crises, social upheavals, and economic changes.

This section offers articles organized according to a chronological order of the key milestones in Rome's history, including the reigns of its legendary kings, the forming of a republic, the Punic Wars with Carthage, the establishment of the Roman Empire, and the decline and eventual collapse of the Roman state. By exploring the rich tapestry of Rome's history, we gain a deeper appreciation of the enduring legacy of this remarkable civilization and its impact on the world we live in today.

Rare Roman Artifacts Unearthed Beneath an Ancient Well

Rare Roman Artifacts Unearthed Beneath an Ancient Well

Located near the Temple of Hercules and in a sacred area of the site, archaeologists excavating a well in the ancient city of Ostia Antica, about 15 miles southwest of Rome, were surprised to find...
Representation of Roman generals

Late Republican Era Rome's Influential Generals (Video)

The transformation of Rome during the Late Republican era was marked by a series of significant changes, particularly in its military and political landscape. From 133 BC to 27 BC, Rome experienced a...
Vesuvius eruption devastating Pompeii

New Narrative of Pompeii Survivors Revealed Through Records

Steven L. Tuck /The Conversation On Aug. 24, in AD 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted, shooting over 3 cubic miles of debris up to 20 miles (32.1 kilometers) in the air. As the ash and rock fell to Earth, it...
Roman Baths in Bath, England.

New Study Reveals Healing Properties of Water at Roman Baths in England

Few surviving Roman installations are as popular in England as the Roman Baths , which can be found in the appropriately named city of Bath, Somerset . Nearly 2,000 years after these public...
Tourist Defaces Roman Wall in Herculaneum

Dutch Tourist Defaces Ancient Roman Villa in Herculaneum

A 27-year-old tourist from the Netherlands has been accused of defacing a frescoed wall in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum, located near Naples, Italy. The vandalism occurred at a historic site...
Ancient Roman Maritime Pavilion

Ancient Roman Maritime Pavilion Excavated off Italy’s Coast

A significant archaeological discovery has been made off the coast of Campo di Mare, Italy, revealing a submerged Roman-era structure that once formed part of a grand villa complex. This find is the...
Roman Centurion

The Grand Strategy of Defense of the Roman Empire

If one was to briefly define the expression of ‘grand strategy’, it would likely be described as the integration of a state's overall political, economic, and military aims to preserve its long-term...
AI image of the Roman Republic

Visualizing Republican Rome's Splendor (Video)

Republican Rome , emerging from the ashes of monarchy, left a tangible legacy in the landscape of ancient Italy. With the expulsion of kings in 509 BC, Rome sought to carve its own identity. Temples...
AI image of the Roman Republic. Source: Alfaza503/Adobe Stock

Visualizing Republican Rome's Splendor (Video)

​ Republican Rome , emerging from the ashes of monarchy, left a tangible legacy in the landscape of ancient Italy. With the expulsion of kings in 509 BC, Rome sought to carve its own identity...
Mosaic depicting the Muse, Calliope, excavated in Side, Turkey.      Source: Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Culture and Tourism

2,200-Year-Old Mosaic of the Muse Calliope Exposed in Turkey

Archaeologists exploring the site of an ancient Greek settlement in southern Turkey unearthed a beautifully preserved mosaic floor dating back to the second century BC. What made this mosaic floor...
Historical illustration of the great Roman Empire. Source: Roman /Adobe Stock

Imperium Sine Fine, Frontiers, and City Walls: Early Rome to the Emperor Aurelian

The Latin word imperium originally meant power, specifically the power to command armies, and also civilians. Such power was conferred by law on a Roman official, such as a consul, a praetor, or any...
Archaeologists found a gold earring hidden inside a jar that had been placed in a wall at the Iron Age settlement called Tossal de Baltarga. 	Source: Marco Ansaloni/Frontiers

Devastating Iron Age Hillfort Fire Linked to Hannibal

A violent blaze, possibly linked to the Carthaginian army crossing the Pyrenees to fight the Romans, flared up so quickly people couldn’t save their animals or their valuables. A Snapshot of Ancient...
Representational image of an ancient Roman historian. Source: Ian / Adobe Stock

Imaginary Roman Emperors Grace the Pages of the Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta presents a carnival of outlandish stories that have puzzled historians for centuries. But these bizarre fabrications are not limited to irrelevant details. The ancient collection...
Painting Captives in Rome, by Charles Bartlett. Source: Public Domain

Understanding the Harsh Realities of Roman Slaves (Video)

​ The Roman slave's existence was a harrowing one, devoid of freedom or dignity. Despite the grandeur of the Roman Empire , its foundation rested upon the backs of these oppressed individuals, whose...
Karanis, Egypt. Source: Einsamer Schütze/CC BY-SA 4.0

New Revelation Ancient Greco-Roman Karanis Endured to 7th Century

New research has revolutionized our understanding of Karanis, an ancient Greco-Roman agricultural settlement nestled in the Fayum oasis of Egypt. Contrary to prior assumptions of abandonment in the...
Side view of the colossal head of Decebalus. Source: Cazanele Dunării/CC BY-SA 4.0)

The Colossal Head of Decebalus, King of the Dacians

In the heart of Rome stands a 38-meter tall (124.67ft) tall column built in the 2nd century AD. Carved in low relief spiralling around the monument are over 2600 figures, representing the combatants...
The Tyrian Purple pigment found at Carlisle Cricket Club	Source:  Wardell Armstrong

A Regal Hue: The Discovery of Tyrian Purple in Roman Carlisle

In an extraordinary archaeological find at Carlisle, UK, researchers have unearthed what appears to be Tyrian Purple, a rare and historically significant pigment once reserved for the highest...
"Certosa di Pavia - Medallion at the base of the facade". The Latin inscription tells that these are Romulus and Remus.           Source: Public Domain

The Seven Legendary Kings Who Built Rome (Video)

The era of Rome's seven kings , spanning from approximately 753 BC to 509 BC, marks a critical period in the city's history. Romulus , the legendary founder, is said to have established Rome's...
Left; The excavation site at Somma Vesuviana. Credit: Right; Augustus Caesar of Prima Porta statue. 	Source: Left; University of Tokyo Foundation.  Right; Vatican Museums/CC BY-SA 4.0

Villa Where Augustus Died May Have Been Excavated Near Mount Vesuvius

Archaeologists from the University of Tokyo has excavated what may be the remains of the Villa of Augustus, a first-century grand estate that was built near Somma Vesuviana, a town located in the...
The underside of the Etruscan lamp of Cortona. Source: Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca e della città di Cortona/DeGruyter, edited by R. Alburz

Bronze Lamp Revealed as Dionysus Cult Object in Cortona Italy

An interesting new study has challenged the previous estimations surrounding a beautiful bronze lamp unearthed in a ditch near Cortona, central Italy. Using literary sources and iconographic evidence...
Septimius Severus bust sculpture, former Roman emperor. Generative AI. Source: NorLife/Adobe Stock

Septimius Severus and the Severan Dynasty, In Brief (Video)

Septimius Severus , the African emperor, ascended to power in 193 AD, heralding the inception of the Severan dynasty , a transformative epoch in Roman history. His reign, characterized by relentless...
Building materials piled up ready for installation at the Regio IX part of Pompeii.     Source: Pompeii Sites

Preserved Building Site at Pompeii Reveals Roman Construction Techniques

New information relating to Roman construction techniques is emerging from the ongoing excavations at the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. In the rooms of the ancient domus in Region IX, insula 10...
Left: The tiny votive axes were probably utilized within an ancient ceremonial practice.  Right: Rolled up lead Roman curse tablets found at the site. Source: Red River Archaeology Group

Remarkable Roman Villa Unearthed from a Bronze Age Site in England

A Bronze Age site in England, housing a ‘richly decorated Roman villa’ from a later period, has revealed a bounty of artifacts and architectural evidence, which includes aisled buildings adorned with...
Replica of the Hallaton Helmet. The original is set to be displayed at the Harborough Museum in Leicestershire, UK.	(Inset; the original helmet) Source: Harborough Museum (Inset; CC BY 2.0)

The 2,000-year-old Hallaton Helmet Is Reborn in Beautiful Reproduction

A Roman cavalry helmet, initially called a ‘rusty bucket’ has been replicated to show its former glory, 23 years after the original was found in a field in Leicestershire, England. The Hallaton...