Ancient Origins Tour IRAQ

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Roman Chronology

The chronology of Ancient Rome divides this long history into standard periods used by historians, from its legendary foundation to its eventual decline and fall.

Rome's history spanned over a thousand years, from its humble beginnings as a small village on the banks of the Tiber River to its status as the dominant superpower of the ancient world. Along the way, Rome underwent numerous transformations, from a monarchy to a republic, to an empire, and faced many challenges, including wars, political crises, social upheavals, and economic changes.

This section offers articles organized according to a chronological order of the key milestones in Rome's history, including the reigns of its legendary kings, the forming of a republic, the Punic Wars with Carthage, the establishment of the Roman Empire, and the decline and eventual collapse of the Roman state. By exploring the rich tapestry of Rome's history, we gain a deeper appreciation of the enduring legacy of this remarkable civilization and its impact on the world we live in today.

Artifacts and medallion of Emperor Caracalla found in the Roman tombs in Bulgaria. Source: Veliko Tarnovo History Museum

Rare Medallion of Emperor Caracalla Among Valuable Finds from Nova Varbovka

The Veliko Tarnovo Regional History Museum has presented to the media the valuable finds from the Roman graves discovered last December near the village of Nova Varbovka in Strazig. The rich grave...
The Roman-era egg was cast into a watery pit, possibly as part of a funeral rite. Source: Oxford Archaeology.

1,700-year-old Egg Found at Roman Era Site Still Has Liquid Contents

An extraordinary discovery in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, has stunned archaeologists and scientists worldwide: a 1,700-year-old egg, is the only intact specimen from Roman Britain, and now considered...
AI image of Emperor Augustus also known as the founder of the Roman Empire.  Source: Nevio/Adobe Stock

How Did the Pax Romana Start and End? (Videos)

The Pax Romana, a remarkable era of relative peace in the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 180 AD, marked a pivotal period that shaped the empire's trajectory. Emerging from the political turmoil of the...
Left; One of the Herculaneum scrolls that are being deciphered. Right; Text from the Herculaneum scroll          Source: Vesuvius Challenge

AI Tool Deciphers Herculaneum Scroll, and It’s All About Pleasure!

A team of student researchers have combined 3D-mapping and AI to decipher a Greek scroll that was encased in ash during the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The philosophical musing reveals Greek...
Bas relief at Nagsh-e-rostam showing the investiture of Ardashir I, Province du Fars, Iran. Source: Fabienkhan/CC BY-SA 2.5

The Parthian Empire: Rome’s Greatest Enemy (Video)

The Parthian Empire, successor to the Persian legacy, emerged in 238 BC, springing from the Parni tribe's conquest of Parthia in modern-day northeastern Iran. Although initially subdued by the...
The last battle of the Ostrogoths and the end of their influence was fought on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius in the Battle of Mons Lactarius. Painting from 1890, by Alexander Zick.  Source: Captain Blood/ Public domain

Shaping European History- What Made the Goths Unique (Video)

The Goths , pioneers in military strategy, left an indelible mark on European history. Introducing cavalry to warfare, they confronted the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD, a pivotal...
Rome, Italy: The Roman Forum. Source: krivinis/Adobe Stock

Roman Origins: Did Romulus Really Found Rome? (Video)

The legendary founding of Rome revolves around two key figures, Romulus and Aeneas , whose stories intertwine with myth, geology, and archaeology. According to tradition, Romulus , saved by shepherds...
The remains of the Roman triumphal arch found in Serbia.     Source: Serbia Archaeological Institute.

Emperor Caracalla’s Triumphal Arch Unearthed in Serbia

A lesser-known fact about Serbia is that 17 Roman emperors were born in its territory, with Central Serbia being under Roman rule for 800 years. Evidence of this history was unearthed in December,...
Various shots of the mosaic now confirmed dated to the 5th century at Chedworth Roman Villa. Source: Stephen Haywood/Ian Shaw/ © National Trust Images

Roman Mosaic Date Brightens Up Britain’s Dark Ages in More Ways Than One

Rome wasn’t built in a day, but it’s popularly believed that its fall to ‘barbaric’ forces by the beginning of the 5th century, plunged all of Europe into a ‘Dark Age’, where towns and villas...
The Gracchi, by Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume (19th century). Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Source: Mary Harrsch/ CC BY NC-SA 2.0

The Gracchi: How Two Brothers Altered the Course of Roman Politics

The Late Republic was in ruins. Civil war was common. Violence broke out between political factions. Bloody slave revolts erupted. As Rome’s old republican institutions imploded, the Republic began...
Left; the reconstruction imae of Feb=nsatantion Man. Right; The first evidence of Roman-British crucifixion has been found in Fenstanton, Cambridgeshire, England. The heel of a man found with an iron nail pounded through his heel bone was clear evidence of crucifixion. Source: Left; Impossible Factual/BBC, Right; Albion Archaeology

Face of the Only Victim of Roman Crucifixion Found in Britain is Revealed

Experts have successfully reconstructed the face of a man who was a victim of Roman crucifixion, a discovery hailed as "almost unique" by Corinne Duhig, a bone specialist from Cambridge University...
An aerial image depicting the interior walls of a Roman temple found in Spello, Italy, which experts believe to be an ancient pagan temple of fourth-century Italy and the late Roman Empire. Source: Douglas Boin/Saint Louis Univiersity

Pagan Temple Shifts Rome's Narrative of Rapid Conversion to Christianity

The ruins of an ancient pagan temple under a parking lot in central Italy 70 miles (112.65 km) north of Rome, sheds light on the cultural shift during the transition from Roman imperial theology to...
Composite of excavations, burials and artifacts from the Roman necropolis recently uncovered near Rome. Source: Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti Paesaggio Etruria Meridionale

Opulent Tombs & Untold Wealth Revealed at Newly Found Roman Necropolis

Archaeologists involved in a two-year-long excavation project at the site of a planned solar energy plant near Rome unearthed something astonishing and totally unexpected. While exploring under a...
Gladiator mosaic at a Roman villa in Nennig, Germany. Source: Carole Raddato / CC BY-SA 2.0 DEED

Spartacus: The Rebel Gladiator and His Final Last Stand – Part 2

(Read Part 1) Led by the Roman gladiator Spartacus, the Third Servile War stretched on from 73 to 71 BC, an attempt by thousands of Roman slaves to escape the gladiatorial ring. As a Thracian, forced...
Scene of the Persecution of Christianity in ancient Rome. Source: Monsalvettstock/Adobe Stock

How Did Christianity Survive the Roman Empire (Video)

Christianity's survival amidst the stringent Roman Empire highlights the resilience of its early believers. In a time when the Roman stance against new religions was harsh, Christians faced...
A computer-generated image of the battle that is thought to have taken place on a remote mountainside south of Chur around 15 BC between Roman troops advancing northwards through the Alps and local Suanetes. Source: Courtesy of Leona Detig

Lost Roman Battlefield in Switzerland Discovered Through Thousands of Artifacts

In 2019, a spectacular Roman dagger was metal detected in a remote region of the Swiss Alps. Now, a team of scientists and students have mapped a 2,000-year-old Roman battlefield representing the...
Drawing of male Pict. Source: Public Domain

The Picts, the Scottish Tribe That Gave the Romans Hell (Video)

The Picts , a group dwelling north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus, in what is now Scotland, remain shrouded in mystery despite their historical notoriety. The term "Pict" emerged around the third century...
Plague in an Ancient City by Michiel Sweerts.  Source: Public Domain

Most Common Causes of Death in Ancient Rome and Greece (Video)

Life in ancient Greece and Rome was far from the glamorous tales we envision. High mortality rates were fueled by childbirth perils, with poor sanitation contributing to infant mortality. Malaria, an...
Archaeological excavations at the Interamna Lirenas site in central Italy's Lazio region have revealed the prominent remains of a theater. Source: Alessandro Launaro

Interamna, An Obscure Roman Village Escaped 3rd Century Decline of Empire

Two thousand years ago, the ancient Roman settlement of Interamna Lirenas in central Italy’s Lazio region was a typical remote Empire town. It was believed to have suffered the same fate as so many...
The Roman aqueduct that supplied water to Viminacium, a large city on the Roman frontier, Serbia.	Source: Carles Lalueza-Foz/Cell

How the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire Shifted Populations

Despite the Roman Empire's extensive military and cultural influence on the nearby Balkan peninsula, a DNA analysis of individuals who lived in the region between 1 and 1000 AD found no genetic...
The journey of Hannibal, a strategic genius whose audacity and brilliance reshaped the course of ancient history during the Second Punic War.

The Story of Hannibal: The Nightmare of the Roman Empire (Video)

In the tapestry of ancient conflicts, the clash between Rome and Carthage etches a defining chapter. Carthage, a maritime power commanding critical Mediterranean trade routes, resisted Rome's...
Boudicca became the warrior queen who led a revolt against Roman rule in ancient Britain. Source: NorLife/Adobe Stock

Boudicca: The Truth Behind the British Legend (Video)

Boudicca, the enigmatic warrior queen of the Iceni, has become a legendary figure in British history. Her rebellion against the Roman Empire, shrouded in the accounts of historians Tacitus and...
Made from boiled grape syrup and used to sweeten both food and wine, sapa had a downside – its production utilized lead pots which may have caused the Roman Empire’s demise. Source: Ruslan Gilmanshin/Adobe Stock

Did an Artificial Sweetener Destroy the Roman Empire? (Video)

The fall of the mighty Roman Empire remains shrouded in historical mystery, with various theories attempting to unravel its demise. One intriguing proposition suggests that the empire's collapse may...
Modern Carthage sea view with ancient Carthage ruins in foreground.	Source: Valery Bareta /Adobe Stock

How Carthage Became One of History’s Greatest Empires (Video)

Carthage's rise, often eclipsed by its tragic fall during the Punic Wars against Rome, unfolds as a tale of strategic brilliance and adaptability. Founded in modern-day Tunisia , the city...