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Skulls from mass grave in Yaroslavl, Russia, showing traces of violence. Source: Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences

800-Year-Old Russian Mass Grave Illustrates Extreme Mongol Violence

DNA testing has proven that three people who were found in a mass-grave in Russia dating back 800 years ago belonged to an elite family. Reading the words ‘Russia’ and ‘mass-grave’ in the same...
Battle between Mongols clans and tribes during the time of Genghis Khan. Source: insima / Adobe Stock.

Mosquito Hordes: How a Pesky Insect Destroyed the ‘Almost’ Invincible Mongol Empire

The inhospitable, remote high steppes and grassland of the austere and windswept northern Asian plateau were occupied by warring tribal clans and duplicitous factions. Alliances were capricious,...
Many Darkhads rely on herding for a living.

The Darkhad: Guardians of The Soul of Genghis Khan

The Darkhad are a Mongol tribe who live in northern Mongolia. In particular, this tribe is found in the Ulaan-Uul, Renchinlkhumbe, Tsagaannuur, and Bayanzurkh sums (the equivalent of a district) of...
Kublai Khan: Mongol Warrior, Horseman, Hunter and Powerful Emperor

Kublai Khan: Mongol Warrior, Horseman, Hunter and Powerful Emperor

Kublai Khan is perhaps best known for his establishment of the Yuan Dynasty , and may be considered as one of China’s most famous emperors. Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan, the founder...
Modern Mongol horsemen at the eagle festival. Life may have been tranquil for hunters during the time of Pax Mongolica too.

The Pax Mongolica: When the Mongols Brought Peace to Europe and Asia

The Pax Mongolica (translated from Latin to mean ‘Mongol Peace’) refers to a period in history when a large part of Europe and Asia was under Mongol control as a result of the military campaigns of...
The Mongol ruler Hulagu in Baghdad interns the Caliph of Baghdad among his treasures. Hulagu founded the Ilkhanate.

The Ilkhanate Had Only Two Goals: Conquest and Power

The Ilkhanate was one of the four khanates that emerged after the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. This khanate was founded by Hulegu Khan, one of Genghis Khan’s grandsons, and lasted from the...

The Genghis Khan Biography: Military Genius, Genocidal Maniac, Serial Abuser Of Women

Genghis Khan: the infamous 13th century Emperor of the Mongol Empire was one the most ferocious and ruthless people to have ever lived on planet Earth. If you read a Genghis Khan biography, it won’t...
A statue of Batu Khan in Turkey.

Batu Khan: The Leader of the Golden Horde Kept His Grandfather Genghis’ Legacy Going

Batu Khan was a Mongol ruler and the founder of the Golden Horde (known also as the Kipchak Khanate, and the Ulus of Jochi). He was a grandson of Genghis Khan through Jochi, the Great Khan’s eldest...
Ogedei Khan.

Ogedei Khan: Only His Death Could Save Europe from the Mongols

Ogedei Khan was the second Khagan (meaning ‘Great Khan’) of the Mongol Empire. He was the third son of Genghis Khan and succeeded his father in 1229. Ogedei continued to expand the Mongol Empire, a...
Painting depicting what the silver tree of Karakorum may have looked like.

Karakorum: A Silver Tree and Other Unique Elements of a 13th Century Mongol Capital

During the 13th century, Karakorum was perhaps one of the most important cities in the world. It was the capital of the Mongol Empire. After it was destroyed, the location of the famous city was lost...
A Mongol warrior. Although Jebe started out as an enemy of the Mongols, he eventually became on the Genghis Khan’s most trusted generals.

Jebe: Genghis Khan’s Would-be Assassin Becomes His Sharpshooting General

Jebe was a prominent Mongolian general who served under Genghis Khan. He was a converted enemy soldier who lucked out after shooting an arrow at the infamous Khan during battle. In a strange turn of...
Mongol attac

The Famous and Powerful Khanates that Followed the Mongol Empire

A khanate was a political entity ruled by a khan. Historically speaking, the ruler of a Mongolian tribe was given the title ‘Khan’. Later on, this title was adopted by many Muslim societies. Although...
Taniec tatarski (Tatar's Dance), a painting by Juliusz Kossak

The Tatars: The Golden Horde, People from Hell, Or Something Else?

Today, Tatars is a collective name given to a number of Turkic-speaking groups that live in Russia and several former Soviet countries. But Tatars has had various other meanings through history. For...
Detail of a figure of a Xianbei warrior. (Editor at Large/CC BY SA 2.5) Background: Filial sons and virtuous women in Chinese history, a lacquer painting over a four-panel wooden folding screen; from the tomb of Sima Jinlong in Datong, Shanxi province, dated to the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534 AD)

The Xianbei: A Chinese Dynasty Emerges from Nomadic Warriors of the Steppe

The Xianbei people … invade our frontiers so frequently that hardly a year goes by in peace, and it is only when the trading season arrives that they come forward in submission. But in so doing they...
A cowboy boot in a horse’s stirrup.

Giddyap! How the Stirrup Revolutionized Horseback Riding and Helped Build Empires

Seemingly simple, yet oh so significant - the stirrup is an invention that changed the history of the world. The emergence of the stirrup revolutionized the way horses were ridden and consequently re...
Painting of the 12th century mausoleum оf Sultan Sanjar, located in Merv.

Merv: In Ruins Today, How Does the Eternal City of the East Live on?

The city of Rome has long been nicknamed the eternal city because of its association with the Roman Catholic Church and the belief among ancient Roman pagans that the city would last forever -...

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