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Samson and the Lion by Luca Giordano (1694) Museo del Prado (Public Domain)

Metallurgical Key Unlocking Samson’s Lion Riddle

Biblical Samson challenged his wedding guests with a riddle: “ Out of the eater came something to eat, and out of the strong came something sweet ”. The simple answer is Samson was referring to a...
Roman soldiers on the march and their general (vukkostic /Adobe Stock)

Third-Century Roman Empire: Revival From Chaos 270 – 285 BC

During the period designated by modern historians as the era of Roman military anarchy which lasted from 235 to 285 AD, 20 generals unconventionally elected as emperors fought and succeeded each...
Osiris as a pharaoh, real king (NorLife/ Adobe Stock)

Was Osiris A Real Person Deified After Death Or A Mythical God?

Who was Osiris? Was he a mythological God in ancient Egypt before Christianity began, or was he a real person, a King of Egypt? Dr Ken Jeremiah provides his thoughts on the existence of a real person...
Like all Greeks Athenians love to argue (jambulart/ Adobe Stock)

Visiting A Time Capsule Of Periclean Athens

A time-traveler considering taking a stroll through Periclean Athens has a very narrow window of time to visit Athens in its heyday. Pericles, sometimes noted as the greatest statesman of Athens,...
Augustus and Cornelius Cinna Magnus Bozetto by Louis André Gabriel Bouchet (1819) Versailles Musée National du Chateau et des Trianons (Public Domain)

Papyrus Rolls Roling From Egypt To The Roman Empire

By the first century AD, papyrus paper was available throughout the Roman Empire, a market that consisted of the area stretching from Hadrian’s Wall in the northern wilds of Caledonia, east to the...
Roman soldiers treachery and mutiny ( Cridmax / Adobe Stock)

A Crumbling Roman Empire: Treachery, Mutiny And Plague 250 – 270 AD

The Roman Empire during the first half of the third century AD experienced a rapid succession of no less than eight Emperors, battling the Persians in the east and the invading Goths on the northern...
Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini / ancient Thera ( CC BY-SA 3.0)

Accountant Takes An Accurate Shot At Cracking Bronze Age Script, Linear A

The enigmatic script Linear A has long been one of antiquity's most enduring mysteries. Emanating from Bronze Age Crete, its undecipherable cryptic symbols have frustrated researchers, historians,...
Roman Emperor (CEVmemories/ Adobe Stock)

Military Anarchy Period Of The Roman Empire: Descent Into Hades 235-250 AD

Most experts today recognize that the period of the Antonine Imperial Dynasty, which lasted from 96 to 192 AD, corresponded to the zenith of the Roman Empire . Yet, just over 40 years later, the...
Nero after the burning of Rome by Karl von Piloty (before 1886) Lenbachhaus (Public Domain)

The Tainted Love Life Of Nero, Fickle Emperor Of Rome

In 49 BC, Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero sent a letter to his friend Atticus informing him about the current gossip in Rome. This time, the big news involved the famous Mark Antony. “ Marcus...
Majestic Temple of Hera at Paestum ( Nido Huebl/ Abobe Stock)

Greek Goddesses’ Temples Grace Paestum On The Italian Tyrrhenian Sea

The ancient Greek city of Poseidonia, now Paestum , lies on the Italian coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Paestum, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is famed for its well-preserved ruins. In fact, posterity...
King Henry VIII’ s court with Anne Boleyn. (Public Domain)

Another Scandalous Love Affair At the Tudor Court Of Henry VIII

The Devonshire Manuscript contains love poems written by the ladies at the court of Queen Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII. It consists of 124 pages on which 184 poems had been lovingly...
Aeneas defeats Turnus, by Luca Giordano, 1634–1705. The genius of Aeneas is shown ascendant, looking into the light of the future, while that of Turnus is setting, shrouded in darkness by Luca Giordano (17th century) (Public Domain)

The Prestigious Pedigree Of Aeneas, Descendant Of Dardanos

One hears of Aeneas’ pedigree for the first time from his own mouth, in the Iliad , as he stands facing his arch-foe, Achilles, on the battlefield before Troy: ‘ Learn then my lineage if you will –...
The Bloody Feud Over the Coveted Castle Of Ivry

The Bloody Feud Over the Coveted Castle Of Ivry

The history of the Castle of Ivry is one of betrayal and bloodshed. Its very construction ended in violence. Countess Aubrée, who had the castle built, was so impressed with it that she had the...
Margaret Douglas and her husband Matthew, Earl of Lennox, their young son Charles and grandson James VI of Scotland, next to the body of their son Lord Darnley, consort to Queen Mary of Scots and father of James VI, by Livinus De Vogelaare (1567) (Public Domain)

The Remarkable Life Of Margaret Douglas, Countess Of Lennox, Ancestor Of The Royal Bloodline Of Britain

The life of a woman in Tudor England was not an easy one, even for those of noble birth and royal status. The role of a woman was to marry, run a household and produce the all-important male heir...
Moses and Joshua in the Tabernacle, wearing the breastplate by James Jacques Joseph Tissot, (1836-1902) Jewish Museum, New York (Public Domain)

The Israelites’ Lost Urim And Tummim, Divine Divination Of Yahweh

The story of the settlement of the Israelite tribes in the Promised Land has long been the subject of controversy among scholars. Moreover, the narrative of the Book of Judges has been regarded as...
Roberto the Roman welcoming the traveler to bustling Rome(Massimo Todaro /Adobe Stock)

Strolling Through Augustan Rome With Roberto The Roman

Like many ancient cities, and some modern, Augustan Rome was a combination of public magnificence and private squalor. There were the temples, the aqueducts, the basilicas, and other grandiose public...
Caracol Collage, created by the author:  The Observatory in 2023; photo by author, Starry sky background compliments of Felix Mittermeier, Pixabay, To the upper left is the lithograph of El Caracol by Frederick Catherwood, 1844, To the upper right is the recreation of El Caracol at Chichén Itzá by artist J.S. Bolles, 1935, Flanking the Caracol are two heads of K’uk’ulkan, photos from Ruppert, Karl, The Caracol at Chichen Izta (sic) Yucatan, Mexico, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1935.

El Caracol Conundrum: Secrets of Chichén Itzá’s Famous Maya Observatory

Standing unique among ancient structures, Chichén Itzá’s enigmatic “Observatory”, El Caracol, may be the world’s most mysterious and distinctive stone monument. It was built by the Maya of the...
Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Emperor Augustus and his wife Livia with his daughter Julia present by Angelica Kauffmann (1788) Hermitage Museum (Public Domain)

How To Empress: First Imperial Women Of Rome

Although the Julian Dynasty of ancient Rome has delivered many examples of powerful and ambitious imperial women, not all of them were meant to become an empress. The reign of Emperor Augustus alone...
Norandino and Lucina Discovered by the Ogre’ (1624) by Giovanni Lanfranco. Galleria Borghese  (Public Domain)

How The Sons Of God Became The Sethian Nephilim

According to the biblical story told in the Book of Genesis , Chapter 6:1-4, certain Sons of God fathered children with the daughters of men. They were called the Nephilim and are often identified...
Ibn Umail describes a statue of a sage holding the tablet of ancient alchemical knowledge. Illustration from a transcript of Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi's book Al-mâ' al-waraqî (The Silvery Water), Islamic miniature probably from Baghdad (Public Domain)

Perfect Nature: Encountering The Self As A Spiritual Guide In The Arabic Hermetica

The Pseudo-Aristotelian Hermetica are a core subgroup of Arabic Hermetic texts which take the form of discourses and letters of the philosopher Aristotle to Alexander the Great. The texts concern an...
Portrait of the Royal Tudors. At left, Henry VII, with Prince Arthur behind him, then Prince Henry (later Henry VIII), and Prince Edmund, who did not survive early childhood. To the right is Elizabeth of York, with Princess Margaret, then Princess Elizabeth who didn't survive childhood, Princess Mary, and Princess Katherine, who died shortly after her birth. (Public Domain)

The Other Arthur Of England: Pendragon Or Tudor?

For over 300 years, and probably more besides, the fabled figure of King Arthur had set the standard for English kings to follow. The victorious son of Uther Pendragon was, in the words of Geoffrey...
Virgil reading The Aeneid before Augustus, Livia and Octavia, by  Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1812) Toulouse, Musée des Augustins (Public Domain)

When In Rome: Legends - Fact Or Fiction, Does It Matter?

The Greeks exhibited an amazing aptitude for fashioning myths about gods and heroes. Not so the Romans, who failed to produce an independent mythological tradition. But what the Romans did excel at...
Archaeologist Dr Van Ess speculate a third of Uruk was covered in gardens and canals on stead of streets were used. AI generated ( Rick / Adobe Stock)

Uruk: Ancient Civilization Archaeological Superstar Status

Uruk, in southern Iraq, has reached superstar status in the realm of archaeological excavations of ancient civilizations by delivering the Sumerian King Lists among the 5,000 cuneiform tablets...
Mamaconas or nun’s enclosure at Pachacamac ( Caio/ Adobe Stock)

Revisiting The Oracle Of Pachacamac In Peru

Since ancient times, ubiquitous to various cultures, humankind has sought to overcome that which they cannot control, such as healing mysterious afflictions and trying to predict the veiled future,...

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