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Iliad, Book VIII, lines 245–53, Greek manuscript, late fifth, early sixth centuries AD. (Public Domain)

The Iliad: Overlapping Mycenaean Bronze Age And Dark Age Allegories

Known as the “Age of Heroes,” the Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BC) was immortalized in the Homeric epics by such noteworthy characters as the imperious commander-in-chief “king of men” Agamemnon...
Socrates and Alcibiades by Kristian Zahrtmann  (1910) Statens Museum for Kunst (Public Domain)

Athens’ Alcibiades: Charming Playboy, Conniving Politician Or Treacherous Opportunist?

Pericles and Alcibiades were both descendants of the Alkmeonidai, an ancient Athenian aristocratic family. Pericles (495 – 429 BC) was an influential Athenian politician and general in the fifth...
The funeral rites of a mummy on the Nile, by Frederic Arthur Bridgman (1876–77). Speed Art Museum, Louisville (Public Domain)

The Dead Below Deck: Funerary Boat Customs

Archaeologists discovered a 5,000-year-old Egyptian funerary boat, measuring 60 feet (18 meters), that was so well preserved that it still had intact plant fibers attached to it, in 2016. Found near...
Fresco of Paul’s Conversion, by Michelangelo  (1542-45) in the Vatican Cappella Paolina (Public Domain)

Near-Death-Experiences Of The Ancients

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle formed a trio toward the middle of the fourth century BC in ancient Greece to become the most well-known philosophers who ever lived. They were the founders of the...
Gladiatoren im Kolosseum by Eugène Delacroix (Public Domain)

Big Cats For The Fat Cats Of Ancient Rome

Emperor Caracalla kept a favorite lion, Acinaces, as a pet, but not all Romans’ obsession for big feline predators boded well for the animals. “It is believed that a dying lion bites the earth and...
Mounted Band of The Scots Greys, depicting the Coronation of King George VI of England, by Harry Greville Wood Irwin (1937) (Public Domain)

King Charles III’ Coronation, Tradition, Pomp And Ceremony

Britain is in the grip of Coronation fever – for the first time in 70 years. Commemorative coins, medallions and mugs are everywhere. And there are endless discussions by supposed experts on the...
Royal Entry of Queen Mary I with Princess Elizabeth into London by Byam Shaw (1910) (Public Domain)

The Fall of the Leaf: Mary Tudor’s Seasonal Depression

Mary Tudor, daughter of King Henry VIII and Queen Katherine of Aragon was not a happy person. When Mary Tudor's health is discussed, it is usually her phantom pregnancies that are so often...
The ruins of Thetford Priory (Tanya Dedyukhina/CC BY-SA 3.0)

Thetford Priory, Lost Resting Place of Henry VIII’s Illegitimate Son

The towering ruins of the Priory of Our Lady at Thetford recalls in the words of English Heritage, “ one of the largest and richest foundations in medieval East Anglia ,” yet the ravaged stones of...
Cynegils of Wessex by John Speed (1611) (Public Domain)

The Shadowy Kingdom Of Gewissae, Britain’s First Kings

Gewissae was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom that ruled much of southern Britain from the fifth to the seventh centuries as the island began forging a new identity in the aftermath of Roman occupation...
Top Image: Artist’s impression of ancient Akkadian city with a temple ( jambulart / Adobe Stock)

Unmasking Ugarit’s Mysterious Asiatic King-God Commanding The Habiru

A temple of the god, Baal, built in the ancient city of Ugarit, nowadays called Ras Shamra, on the north-eastern shores of the Mediterranean coast of Syria, date back to the beginning of the Middle...
Akhenaten plaster bust on the left and Smenkhkare plaster bust on the right of the funerary mask of Tutankhamun. Berlin’s Neues Museum. Behind is the sunrise near Amarna, Egypt. (Image: Courtesy Jonathon Perrin)

The Tut Is Not My Son!

It could be quite the talk show: Who is King Tut’s real father? The host would be handed an envelope with the paternity test results. The audience hushes, clutching their seats, biting their nails...
Athenians on the beach of Marathon. Modern re-enactment of the battle (2011) (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Marathon Greece: Nenikekamen, We Are Victorious!

‘ Nenikekmen / We are victorious ’ cried Pheidippides as he stumbled exhausted into Athens’ agora, after running over the mountain, to announce their victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon in...
Carvings on the peak of the El Castillo pyramid (Structure A6) at Xunantunich, Belize (cjuneau /CC BY-SA 2.0)

11,000 Years Of Ancient Culture In Belize

Not even 50 years ago, Belize, in Central America, gained independence on September 21, 1981, but its history dates back to 9,000 years. In prehistory the territory was home to several ancient...
The Courtship of Anne Boleyn, by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (1846) Smithsonian American Art Museum (CC0)

Surprising Intimate Facts About Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII’s Second Queen

Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII , is a historical figure that has captured the imagination of people for centuries. Her story is filled with drama, intrigue, and tragedy, and her...
Vikingship on Ungst (Unstphoto/CC BY-SA 4.0)

5,000 Years of History Still Standing In Scotland’s Shetland Isles

Ultima Thule meaning "farthest Thule", was the most northerly location mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman cartographic literature, while modern interpretations of this place include the islands of...
Samurai vs conquistador. Source: AI generated.

The Ultimate Showdown: Samurai vs. Conquistadors in battle (Video)

It’s always a lot of fun to imagine what would happen if history’s greatest warriors had ever clashed. Medieval Knights vs Spartans. Vikings vs the Roman Legion. But there’s one epic clash which isn’...
Bust of Fransisco de Orellana (Ricardo Algár/Adobe Stock) Amazon rainforest (William Perez/Adobe Stock)

Francisco Orellana’s Accidental Discovery Of The Amazon

Among the daring exploits of those early Spanish conquistadors intent on claiming the New World for their own, none are as dramatic as Francisco Orellana’s perilous nine month journey to the Amazon...

Homeric Hymn to Demeter Or The Thesmophoria – Which Came First?

Evoking early agrarian rituals which celebrated the primal mysteries of birth, death, and resurrection, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter has the distinction of being amongst humankind’s first literary...
Composite Bust of Queen Teuta of Illyria (CC BY-SA 4.0) Romanized Liburnus war ship (Public Domain)

Historians’ Gender Bias Accounts Of Illyrian Queen Teute’s Roman Encounter

In a clash of ego’s Teute, a third century BC widowed queen regent of the Ardiaei tribe of Illyria , faced off a Roman envoy, who challenged her policy on piracy, yet historians Polybius’ and Cassius...
Blackwall Yard from the Thames by Francis Holman (1784) (Public Domain)

Plain Sailing: Shapes And Speed In Historic Naval Designs

During the 1700s, European naval studies were decisive and very important, so much so that espionage by Spain and France against England for military and naval purposes alone had become a real...

Clare Castle, Seat Of Elizabeth De Clare Who Defied Her King

Not all castles are occupied by fairy princesses. In the 14th century, Elizabeth de Clare was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women of her time, who defied her king to defend her lands. Today...
Lord Darnley and Mary Queen of Scots by unknown painter (Public Domain)

In Search Of The Murder Scene Of Lord Darnley, Spouse Of Mary Queen Of Scots

Letters previously thought to have been Italian texts from the 16th century, turned out to be written by Mary Queen of Scotts, when she was held prisoner by her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. This...
Fountain Abbey grounds enveloped in morning mist, from the Infirmary (DrMoschi /CC BY-SA 4.0)

Fountains Abbey: Ruins And Reminiscences Of Monastic Life In England

The imposing ruins of Fountains Abbey dominate the rural landscape around the village of Aldfield, three miles (4.8 kilometers) west of the town of Ripon in North Yorkshire, England. The largest...
Greece’s Rhamnous Coastal Port: Supreme Court Of Nemesis And Themis

Greece’s Rhamnous Coastal Port: Supreme Court Of Nemesis And Themis

Rhamnous on the east coast of Attica, overlooking the island of Euboea, was a deme of strategic importance to Athens during the sixth and fifth centuries BC, because it guarded the Euripus Strait,...

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