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Ancient Origins Premium offers a wealth of knowledge and a variety of learning methods (articles, eBooks, webinars, expeditions and more) that will help you embark on a journey you will never forget!

Flash Tesla coil experiment. Source: Public Domain

The Giza-Tesla Connection Finally Explained

With no, or slim, evidence, Egyptologists claim that all of Egypt’s pyramids were built to be tombs. With an abundance of robust evidence, I will theorize that all of Egypt’s pyramids were built to...
Historical illustration of the great Roman Empire. Source: Roman /Adobe Stock

Imperium Sine Fine, Frontiers, and City Walls: Early Rome to the Emperor Aurelian

The Latin word imperium originally meant power, specifically the power to command armies, and also civilians. Such power was conferred by law on a Roman official, such as a consul, a praetor, or any...
The ruins of an early 17th century bastle or defensible farmhouse in the Anglo-Scottish Borders as protection against Border Reivers. Source: drhfoto/Adobe Stock

The Hot Trod: A History of the Anglo-Scottish Border

Here are two peoples almost identical in blood – the same language and religion; and yet a few years of quarrelsome isolation – in comparison with the great historical cycles – have so separated...
Calcio match in Piazza Santa Maria Novella, in Florence. Painting by Jan Van der Straet. Source: Public Domain

Calcio Storico, The Sport of Florence That Equates to an All-out Brawl

In modern times, it is not uncommon for ancient sports to once more become popular. Often, they are long forgotten board games, or folkloric games with sticks and stones. But one Italian sport didn’t...
Painting "Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru", by John Everett Millais, showing Pizarro in the act of capturing the king of the Inca Atahualpa.                                 Source: Public Domain

The Fateful Meeting of Atahualpa & Pizarro (with Prof. Tom Cummins, Harvard)

I was extraordinarily fortunate to meet the esteemed Dr. Tom Cummins nearly twenty years ago in Cusco, Peru - one of the great world centers, or axis mundi. Tom was one of our brilliant lecturers...
Left; Image of Khufu’s Queen’s chamber and Right; a view of Khufu’s pyramid.                   Source:  Provided by Author, Right, Gary Todd/ CC0

A Watery Solution to the Enigmas of Khufu Pyramid’s Queen’s Chamber

Following up on my recent article on the ante-chamber in the Khufu pyramid, published on Ancient Origins public site , in which I argued it was a device designed to open and close more than once,...
AI image of an Akkadian king-god representative of Naram- Sin.  Source: Oleksandr/Adobe Stock

Naram-Sin - The World’s First God-Emperor

During the second half of the third millennium BC the land of Sumer and in fact the entire Mesopotamian region came under the control of the Akkadians, a Semitic people who had lived for centuries...
"Dying Gaul" in the museum on the Capitol, Rome, Italy. Source: Valery Rokhin/Adobe Stock

Historical Journey of the Dying Gaul

The 2,000-year-old sculpture of the Dying Gaul is a larger-than-life marble sculpture of a nude man on the ground holding himself with one arm, resting weakly on an outstretched leg. His hand sits...
The cover of a 1698 edition of the Historia Augusta from Ettal Abbey, Germany. Right: a page of the earliest manuscript. Source: Public Domain, Public Domain

History or Hoax: Dissecting the Intriguing Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta stands as a paradox within the annals of Roman historiography, a perplexing blend of fact and fiction, offering both insights into the imperial era and challenges to historical...
Image of a fortune teller gazing into a glowing orb, zodiac symbols orbiting around, divining the future amidst the cosmos.            Source: Jenjira/Adobe Stock

The Past and the Future: Origins of the Oldest Divination Techniques

The act of divination is believed to be one of the earliest forms of religious activity, with a rich history dating back thousands of years and across multiple civilizations. The word itself, rooted...
Inside royal kurgan in Kerch, Ukraine		Source: Danil/Adobe Stock

The Kurgan Hypothesis – Right Idea, Wrong Continent

In 1956, a hypothesis was proposed by UCLA archaeology and anthropology professor Marija Gimbutas. Her proposal, which was in part based on prior work by Otto Schrader (1883) and V. Gordon Childe (...
Head of aurochs in the Lascaux caves in France. Source: bobdu11 / Adobe Stock

Through Aurochs Eyes: A New Perspective on the Story of Lascaux

They approach me in Lascaux caves on their hands and knees, one carrying a stave atop which tarred plant debris has been wound, set alight from the campfire, which itself was lit from a spark glowing...
Ruins in the ancient city of Sirkap, Taxila, Pakistan. Source: NG-Spacetime / Adobe Stock

A Rich Fusion of Greek and Indian: The Ancient Ruins of Sirkap

When Alexander the Great invaded the Far East, his armies were awed by the strange cultures, exotic animals, and unknown religions of India. Alexander promoted a fusion of cultures and his successors...
Interior of Basilica of San Vitale, which has important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture. Ravenna, Emilia Romagna, Italy. Source: Salvatore Leanza /Adobe Stock

Early Christian Schisms and the History of the Modern Church (Video)

The history of Christianity is a tapestry woven with diverse threads of belief, shaped by centuries of theological debates and regional schisms. From its humble beginnings in Jerusalem, Christianity...
Detail of the Great Cameo of France depicting emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and their family. Source: Marie-Lan Nguyen / CC BY 2.5

Dawn of the Roman Empire: The Julio-Claudians

When the citizens of Rome ousted their last king in 509 BC, power was divided between the magistrates, the Senate, and the assemblies of the people. This partition of authority, which characterized...
Vikings had many rituals. Source: tiagozr / Adobe Stock

Viking Blots, Beserkers and Barbaric Blood Eagles

Famed for their ruthless fighting skills and brave exploring, little is written about Viking religion and their day-to-day ritual practices which were arguably a more central component in Norse...
Poseidon, god of the Mediterranean Sea. Source: Luke / Adobe Stock

Poseidon’s Wrath: The Scourge of the Sea Peoples

Perhaps 3,000 years from now archaeologists will be debating the reasons for the diaspora that occurred in the lands around the Mediterranean Sea during the early 21st century. What would have...
Representation of a forbidden medieval romance, like the affair of Pierre I de Lusignan and Joanna l’Aleman. Source: grape_vein / Adobe Stock

Love and Intrigue: Ruins of King Pierre I and Joanna l’Aleman's Forbidden Romance

In the twilight of the medieval period, amidst the clash of crusades and kingdoms, unfolds the poignant saga of King Pierre I de Lusignan and his courtier, Joanna l’Aleman—a forbidden love story that...
Representational image of the complex nature of Renaissance magic combining science and the divine. Source: lleandralacuerva / Adobe Stock

Renaissance Magic: Linking the Earthly and the Divine

In the Renaissance, magic was a convergence of science, philosophy, and the mystical, reflecting the era's quest for knowledge and understanding of the world. Unlike today's clear demarcation between...
Detail of a recreation of Athena Parthenos at Nashville Parthenon, Tennessee, USA. Source: Lucas Livingston / CC BY 2.0

Athena Parthenos: Tales of Artistry, Myth and Athenian Glory

The city of Acte had not formally been bestowed with divine protection. However, its king, Cecrops, ushered a golden period so remarkable that the city was then renamed Cecropia and the gods...
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665. Source: Public domain

Spice, Spice, Baby: The Dutch East-India Company

Today’s world is run by massive corporations which are ever-present in the lives of everyone on the planet. Everything from computers, software, soft drinks, fast food, coffee and cell phones are...
Performing an offering ceremony to Pachamama in the Andes region of Peru. Source: Yuri - Supay / Adobe Stock

The Traditional Offering Ceremony of the Andes: How to Maintain Balance Between the Material and Spiritual Worlds

In traditional Andean cosmovision, the natural world and the divine are united, and offering ceremonies are seen as a part of the reciprocity system between the material and spiritual worlds...
Epic events shook the ancient Egyptian world during the Era of Menophres. Source: FantasyLand86 / Adobe Stock

Ancient Markers of Traumatic Events: The Era of Menophres, Sothis, Osiris, and Noah

In his work De Die Natali (The Birthday Book), written in 238 AD, Censorinus, a Roman grammarian and author, discusses the concept of the Great Year in Chapter XVIII. He writes “The 1461st year by...
A mysterious and magical island. Source: Marina Varnava / Adobe Stock

Avalon: Island of Apples

The Celtic Otherworld has always been a mystery; a strange, mysterious, and elusive place. What is not always appreciated is the extent to which the Celtic Otherworld, especially the magic Island of...

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