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Ancient Origins Premium offers a wealth of knowledge and a variety of learning methods (articles, eBooks, webinars, expeditions and more) that will help you embark on a journey you will never forget!

Vindolanda Roman fort on Hadrians Wall, Northumberland, England. Walls of the commanders residence (David Matthew Lyons / Adobe Stock)

Revisiting Vindolanda, The Roman Outpost Of Hadrian’s Wall

Sitting proudly on the line of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, just south of the Scottish border, the Roman fort of Vindolanda has dominated the landscape for nearly 2,000 years. Originally built...
Depiction of parchment of Akhenaten and Nefertiti and their children with Aten shining on them as found on the Stela of Akhenaten and his family, Egyptian Museum, Cairo (ppicasso / Adobe Stock)

Akhenaten And Nefertiti: Egypt’s Golden Couple

The drivers arrange the chariots of the royal entourage—two to one side, two to the other side, of the royal chariot, which is distinguished by the great ostrich plumes of its span of stallions...
Spartan woman with warrior in the background (serhiibobyk / Adobe Stock)

The Slaveholding City-State Of Sparta’s Liberated Women

On the face of it, Spartans might have felt right at home living under the iron fist of the Third Reich given that this city-state—more than any other in the Greek world—- sacrificed individuality on...
La Vengeance des fils d'Antar by Nasreddine Dinet (1898) (Public Domain)

The Zanj Rebellion, Revolt Of African Slaves Against The Abbasid Caliphate

Tucked away in an obscure chapter of medieval history, the Zanj rebellion, which raged between 869 to 883 AD, originating in the city of Basra in present-day Iraq, remains relatively unknown to the...
Metrological Relief in the Ashmolean museum (:geni/ CC BY-SA 4.0)

Archaeological Metrology: The Spirit Of Light Cubit In Ancient Sacral Architecture

A journey in search of the discovery of an ancient lost civilization that is more than 12,000 years old, supported by solid archaeological standards and evidence, provides indications that its global...
Historical Overview Of Chinese Women Warriors

Historical Overview Of Chinese Women Warriors

It comes as no surprise that stories about women's involvement in wars pique people's interest all over the world. Apart from challenging fundamental gender norms through their daring deeds and...
Mosaic of Thetis dipping baby Achilles in the Styx – Haleplibache Excavation, Amazon Villa, Sanliurfa Mosaic Museum (Image: Courtesy Micki Pistorius)

Mother and Child Reunion Of Thetis And Achilles

The Iliad can provide new insights on the role of motherhood among the ancient Greek gods, and by extension, amongst ancient mortal Greek women themselves. Very much like the lyrics of the famous...
King Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle, as painted by Eugène Lami in 1829 (Public Domain)

The Recognition Of Monarchy Through History

The well-known story of the Roman Emperor Hadrian’s rebuke at the hands of the petitioner whom he had rebuffed is significant. “ Then, don’t be king! ” was her taunt, illustrating the general...
Image of Osiris (Adobe Stock) and bust of Sargon (CC BY-SA 2.0) (Deriv)

Was The Historical Egyptian Osiris Perhaps Sargon Of Akkad?

In many respects the narrative of the Egyptian god, Osiris, seems to be all too human. Is it possible that his origin goes back to a real historical king? Could the historical Osiris have been none...
There are two holy wells dedicated to St. Brigid in Kildare. The cloths tied to the trees are “clooties” and are imbued with prayers for healing (Image: Courtesy Elyn Aviva)

Walking In Ireland’s Brigid’s Way, Pagan Goddess Or Saint

It is impossible to separate myth and fact, truth from fiction, but there are some things that can be said about Ireland’s Brigid with assurance—and one of these is that her importance has grown...
Mural of Turkic cavalry, Beshbalik (10th Century)(CC0)

The 751 AD Battle Of Talas Deciding The Fate Of Medieval Central Asia

In the eighth century, as Charlemagne forged his European empire, and the Vikings emerged from the bowels of Scandinavia as the most fearsome raiders of their time, fierce battles raged...
Recovered in Bolivia in 1932 the “Bennet monolith” is often referred to as the “Pachamama stela” and is believed to depict the Earth Mother goddess (Pavel Špindler/ CC BY-SA 3.0)

Transformation Of Andean Earth Goddess Pachamama Into The Virgin Mary

The blessed Virgin Mary has a long and dignified reputation within the Catholic church ever since her first appearance in the Biblical narrative of the Annunciation (Luke 1:26), where she is...
Top Image: On Carrington Moss, shows individuals gathering material for besoms by David Cox (1851) (Public Domain)

Hepatomancy In Ceremonial Beginnings: Finding An Auspicious Site

Beginning with a proper state of mind, augmented by proper rites and ceremonies, is essential for any enterprise. The most developed ceremonies of beginning are in European building traditions. One...
The ruins of Reading Abbey and Forbury Park in 2020. (Marie / Adobe Stock)

Restoring The Ruins Of Reading Abbey, Resting Place Of Kings

Reading Abbey was once one of the largest monastic complexes in the British Isles. It was one of the pinnacles of religious life in England and the burial place of King Henry I . Located on a pilgrim...
Top Image: The Sabbath Rest by Samuel Hirszenberg (1894)

Honor The Sabbath Day - The Birth Of The Week

To the Hebrew prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea, the Psalms and the Book of Kings , the Sabbath signified the Full Moon, whereas for Jews in the days of ancient Rome it came to mean one day out of a...
Trung sisters riding elephants. Đông Hồ painting. (Public Domain)

The Trung Sisters – Venerated First-Century Freedom Fighters Of Vietnam

Trần Lệ Xuân, or Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu, the First Lady of the Republic of Vietnam from 1955 to 1963, once celebrated the holiday to commemorate the Trung sisters by riding an elephant in honour of...
Ancient And Modern Cannibalism: A Question Of Taste

Ancient And Modern Cannibalism: A Question Of Taste

Of all the horrible and shocking things that human beings can do to one another, nothing alarms, disgusts, terrifies – or fascinates – more than cannibalism. The subject is intriguing, in part,...
The scene on the Plymouth Hoe when captains play bowls as the Spanish Armada comes into view by John Seymour Lucas (1880) (Public Domain)

The Protestant Wind That Scattered The Spanish Armada 1588

There had never been such good blood between Spain and England as in the mid-16th century. However, in the last quarter of this century relations between Philip II of Spain (also known as 'Philip the...
Deer, antelope and predators. Aberdeen Bestiary (12th century) (Public Domain)

Meaningful Sacred And Profane Medieval Bestiaries

Medieval European churches, constructed by men for the glory of the Creator, are adorned to varying degrees, with sacred and profane images. No figure nor detail in these stone encyclopedia is...
Mankind Is Mesmerized By Millennia Of Moon Mysteries

Mankind Is Mesmerized By Millennia Of Moon Mysteries

Over millennia humankind has been mesmerized by the moon, speculating as to what exactly the moon is and only in early-2022 a team of astronomers suggest the moon may have “formed immediately, in a...
Alchemist British Monks: Digging Up The Old Gunpowder Mills

Alchemist British Monks: Digging Up The Old Gunpowder Mills

16th-Century monks in Britain had a blast! They were the first to experiment with the recipe of saltpeter, Sulphur and charcoal to produce gunpowder in Britain. In the Battle of Crecy in 1346 the...
Main temple at Tulum with hieroglyphic stairway by Frederick Catherwood, from Views of Ancient Monuments (Public Domain)

Stephens And Catherwood: Adventurers Discovering the Ancient Maya

The astounding journeys of John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood to Central America in 1839 to 1842 introduced the ancient, unrecognized Maya civilization to the rest of the world. Their life-...
Mosaic of the Beauty of Durres (Enea shijaku / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Female Contenders For Alexander’s Crown: Cynane, Adea, Olympias

Behind every successful man stands an ambitious woman, the saying goes, more-so if she is a blood-relative of Alxander the Great, and a warrior. Claiming descent from Herakles, the son of Zeus,...
From Pagan To Christian To Islam, Religious Wars In Ancient Sudan

From Pagan To Christian To Islam, Religious Wars In Ancient Sudan

A change in religion more often than not, leads to bloodshed and war as gods hold on to their powers, and their priests and kings and queens take up arms to defend them. The history of Sudan has seen...

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