Iraq Banner Desktop

Store Banner Mobile

Food and wine preparation - Egyptians

New study reveals ancient Egyptians were mostly vegetarian


New research published in the Journal of Archaeological Science and reported in Live Science has shed light on the ancient Egyptian diet. By analysing the carbon atoms in mummies that had lived in Egypt between 3500 BC and 600 AD, the French research team were able to determine that ancient Egyptians were largely vegetarian.

The analysis was carried out on the remains of 45 ancient Egyptians that had been sent to two museums in Lyon, France during the 19 th century, and involved a cutting-edge technique involving the measurement of carbon ratios taken from bone, tooth enamel and hair.

We had an approach that was a little different," explained Alexandra Touzeau, who led the research team at the University of Lyon. "We worked a lot with bones and teeth, while most researchers study hair, collagen and proteins. We also worked on many different periods, with not many individuals for each period, so we could cover a very long time span.

All carbon atoms are taken in by plants from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by the process of photosynthesis. By eating plants, and the animals that had eaten plants, the carbon ends up in our bodies. Analysing this carbon can actually reveal what a person has eaten.

The results revealed that the ancient Egyptians were mainly vegetarian and their diet was primarily wheat- and barley-based. Cereals, such as millet and sorghum, formed a minor part of their diet (less than 10 per cent).

One of the most unusual discoveries was that there seems to have been little fish in their diet. Most people would probably expect the ancient Egyptians living along the Nile to have eaten a lot of fish, and archaeological excavations have found mummified fish in large quantities. However, at least in the 45 individuals studied, fish was not prominent in their diets.

"There is abundant evidence for fishing in Egyptian wall reliefs and models (both spear and net fishing), and fish shows up in offering lists.  There is also a lot of archeological evidence for fish consumption from sites such as Gaza and Amama," said Kate Spence, an archaeologist and specialist in ancient Egypt at the University of Cambridge in England. "All this makes it a bit surprising that the isotopes should suggest that fish was not widely consumed."

In ancient cultures vegetarianism was much more common, except in nomadic populations, and eating meat was a development that occurred more recently.

Featured image:  Ancient Egyptian wall painting depicting food and wine preparation. Image source.

By April Holloway



It is completely logical to understand that our creator made humans to be vegans. Our anatomy shows what we were designed to consume, plants, fruits and nuts. We lack any carnivore or omnivore anatomy. And our digestive system is not designed to eat the dead bodies of animals. That is why we had to cook them—to make them easier to chew, and why we cannot consume rancid meat without throwing up. True carnivore and omnivore animals can make their own vitamin C and eat rancid meat without cooking it. When humans eat animals it forms ammonia and sulfur in our body and putrefies, not coming out of us for several days (pew). There was an abundance of healthy minerals and vitamin B12 for many years. B12 is produced by bacteria in the soil and is naturally found on plants and in the water. THIS is where animals get it. In our sanitized world we have eliminated the natural B12 in most places. Blame it on modern society. There are many healthy vegans proving that the human need for meat is an illusion and an addiction. Myriad of spear tips would logically indicate humans who could have used weapons to protect against other tribes or against animals, Yes they could have been used against animals to eat them. Ancient humans ate plants, and likely scavenged the remains of other animals killed. They were in a SURVIVAL situation. Humans are not biological omnivores, no matter how much we stuff dead bodies into our bodies. The sad thing is that we take in the suffering and death of the animals when we eat them. The reason many biblical ancient humans did not eat animals is out of respect for their lives and the creator who made all of us. Peace..


The comments suggesting humans traditionally ate very little meat, or that the human body is not well adapted to eating meat, are ludicrous in the extreme.  Do these people suppose the myriad spear tips and arrowheads dug up around the world were designed for self defense?  Were hunting scenes painted on cave walls rooted in fantasy?  How many primitive cultures today are vegan?  What evidence is there that civilized cultures by and large abandoned meat?  Hopeful conjecture does not comprise evidence.

The anti-meat argument from a physiological standpoint is even more ridiculous.  Not only do our bodies digest meat with relative ease (easier than grains), which obviously signifies an omnivorous evolutionary history, but they depend on it.  How many plants supply vitamin B12?  Carnitine?  Creatine?  A study done a few years back found that vegetarians/vegans who didn’t take a creatine supplement had significantly lower IQs.  How about omega 3 fatty acids, which are necessary for the repair and maintenance of your heart, brain, and joints?  Even if every ancient culture cultivated flax or another vegetable source, which seems unlikely, it contains the ALA form which is impotent compared to the EPA and DHA found in fish.  And then there’s the most obvious consideration—protein.  To get enough protein to support a strong, healthy body without dietary supplements—especially for a man—you pretty much need to eat meat.  From the standpoint of building and maintaining muscle tissue, restricting your diet to plants is highly impractical.

I’m not saying it can’t be done, but to be a healthy, energized vegan requires a scientific understanding of human physiology, access to a number of supplements, and the ideological motivation.  Putting aside the lack of evidence, I can’t think of any reason whatsoever to assume, or even suppose, the majority of our ancestors avoided meat.

In ancient cultures, vegeterianism was much more common because of their religion's mentality and science's findings. But I think meat protein is necessary for people too. Soy beans are not growing everywhere.

Luccas and RR you both hold the key.

Grain is the number one culprit of cavities, prior to agriculture of grains, cavities were relatively low.


aprilholloway's picture


April Holloway is a Co-Owner, Editor and Writer of Ancient Origins. For privacy reasons, she has previously written on Ancient Origins under the pen name April Holloway, but is now choosing to use her real name, Joanna Gillan.

Joanna... Read More

Next article