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6,000-year-old crown in Dead Sea cave

The 6,000-year-old Crown found in Dead Sea Cave

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The oldest known crown in the world, which was famously discovered in 1961 as part of the Nahal Mishmar Hoard, along with numerous other treasured artifacts, was recently revealed in New York University's Institute for the Study of the Ancient World as part of the 'Masters of Fire: Copper Age Art from Israel' exhibit.

The ancient crown dates back to the Copper Age between 4000–3500 BC, and is just one out of more than 400 artifacts that were recovered in a cave in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea more than half a century ago.  The crown is shaped like a thick ring and features vultures and doors protruding from the top. It is believed that it played a part in burial ceremonies for people of importance at the time. 

New York University wrote: “An object of enormous power and prestige, the blackened, raggedly cast copper crown from the Nahal Mishmar Hoard greets the visitor to Masters of Fire. The enigmatic protuberances along its rim of vultures and building façades with squarish apertures, and its cylindrical shape, suggest links to the burial practices of the time.”

The Nahal Mishmar Hoard was found by archaeologist Pessah Bar-Adon hidden in a natural crevice and wrapped in a straw mat in a cave on the northern side of Nahal Mishmar, which became known as the ‘Cave of Treasures’.  The 442 prized artifacts made from copper, bronze, ivory, and stone, include 240 mace heads, 100 sceptres, 5 crowns, powder horns, tools and weapons.

Nahal Mishmar Hoard items

Some of the items from the Nahal Mishmar Hoard. Credit: John Bedell.

Carbon-14 dating of the reed mat in which the objects were wrapped suggests that it dates to at least 3500 B.C. It was in this period that the use of copper became widespread throughout the Levant, attesting to considerable technological developments that parallel major social advances in the region.

Some of these objects are like nothing ever seen anywhere else. The round knobs are usually said to be mace heads, but there is no evidence that any of them were ever used in combat. The remaining objects are even more unusual and unique in style, such as the bronze sceptre depicted below.

Bronze sceptre from the Nahal Mishmar Hoard

Bronze sceptre from the Nahal Mishmar Hoard. Displayed at the Hecht Museum in Haifa.  Credit: John Bedell.

The objects in the Nahal Mishmar hoard appear to have been hurriedly collected, leading to the suggestions that the artifacts were the sacred treasures belonging to the abandoned Chalcolithic Temple of Ein Gedi, some twelve kilometres away, which may have been hidden in the cave during a time of emergency.

Chalcolithic Temple above modern Kibbutz Ein Gedi

Chalcolithic Temple above modern Kibbutz Ein Gedi. Photo credit: Wikipedia

Daniel Master, Professor of Archaeology at Wheaton College and a member of the curatorial team, said: “The fascinating thing about this period is that a burst of innovation defined the technologies of the ancient world for thousands of years.”

Jennifer Chi, ISAW Exhibitions Director and Chief Curator, added: “To the modern eye, it's stunning to see how these groups of people, already mastering so many new social systems and technologies, still had the ability to create objects of enduring artistic interest.”

The purpose and origin of the hoard remains a mystery.

Featured image: The oldest crown in the world, found in the Nahal Mishmar Hoard. ( Wikimedia).

By April Holloway

Related Links

The Nahal Mishmar Treasure – The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Chalcolithic hoard from Nahal Mishmar, Israel, in context – by P.R.S. Moorey

Essays in Ancient Civilization Presented to Helene J. Kantor – by Albert Leonard & Bruce Beyer Williams

Comments

These artefacts follow the same system as everywhere else – they use the ancient zodiac discovered at Gobekli Tepe. See martinsweatman.blogspot.com

They look like candle stick holders to me. And their culture looks llike they allow the wax to drip and build up a foundation around the peices. Just what came to my mind.
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The crown may have been worn by the shaman to symbolise his ability to enter and return from the underworld. Hence the vultures and doors. It may also, as suggested, have been an incense burner, with the clawed clubs used to pick up the 'burning bush'. The other paraphernalia look very much like parts of a hookah pipe.

Given the extensive use of cannabis as a sacrament in the region (as described in Herodotus and the Bible), could these not be Shamanic paraphernalia used to burn cannabis?

I agree with the aforementioned observations above. The "crown" does appear to be a base of chaffing dish of some design. Equal distant legs that would hold something level and an opening for a heating element... Heating a bowl of incense/potpourri?

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