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Pied Piper of Hamelin

The Disturbing True Story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin


When, lo! as they reached the mountain-side, 
A wondrous portal opened wide,
As if a cavern was suddenly hollowed;
And the Piper advanced and the children followed,
And when all were in to the very last,
The door in the mountain-side shut fast.

Robert Browning, The Pied Piper of Hamelin: A Child’s Story

Many are familiar with the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Few realize however, that the story is based on real events, which evolved over the years into a fairy tale made to scare children.

The Pied Piper of Hamelin Story

For those unfamiliar with the tale, the Pied Piper of Hamelin is set in 1284 in the town of Hamelin, Lower Saxony, Germany. This town was facing a rat infestation, and a piper, dressed in a coat of many colored, bright cloth, appeared. This piper promised to get rid of the rats in return for a payment, to which the townspeople agreed.

Although the piper got rid of the rats by leading them away with his music, the people of Hamelin reneged on their promise. The furious piper left, vowing revenge. On July 26 of that same year, the piper returned and led the children away, never to be seen again, just as he did the rats.

The Pied Piper leading Hamelin’s children away. (Archivist /Adobe Stock)

Nevertheless, one or three children were left behind, depending on which version is being told. One of these children was lame, and could not keep up, another was deaf and could not hear the music, while the third one was blind and could not see where the other children were going.

The Record Shows No Rats

The earliest known record of this story is from the town of Hamelin itself. It is depicted in a stained glass window created for the church of Hamelin, which dates to around 1300 AD. Although it was destroyed in 1660, several written accounts have survived. The oldest comes from the Lueneburg manuscript (c 1440 – 50), which stated: “In the year of 1284, on the day of Saints John and Paul on June 26, by a piper, clothed in many kinds of colours, 130 children born in Hamelin were seduced, and lost at the place of execution near the koppen.” A 1384 entry in Hamelin’s town records also grimly states “It is 100 years since our children left.”

The oldest known picture of the Pied Piper

The oldest known picture of the Pied Piper copied from the glass window of the Market Church in Hameln/Hamelin Germany (c.1300-1633). (Public Domain)

The supposed street where the children were last seen is today called Bungelosenstrasse (street without drums), as no one is allowed to play music or dance there. Incidentally, it is said that the rats were absent from earlier accounts, and only added to the story around the middle of the 16th century. Moreover, the stained glass window and other primary written sources do not speak of the plague of rats.

What Actually Happened in Hamelin?

If the children’s disappearance was not an act of revenge, then what was its cause for the Pied Piper’s actions? There have been numerous theories trying to explain what happened to the children of Hamelin.

For instance, one theory suggests that the children died of some natural causes, and that the Pied Piper was actually a personification of Death. By associating the rats with the Black Death , it has been suggested that the children were victims of that plague. Yet, the Black Death was most severe in Europe between 1348 and 1350, more than half a century after the event in Hamelin.

Is the Pied Piper Death personified? (Archivist /Adobe Stock)

Another theory suggests that the children were actually sent away by their parents, due to the extreme poverty in which they were living. Yet another theory speculates that the children were participants of a doomed ‘Children’s Crusade’, and might have ended up in modern day Romania.

There is also the suggestion that the departure of Hamelin's children is tied to the Ostsiedlung, in which a number of Germans left their homes to colonize Eastern Europe. Reflecting on this hypothesis, Wibke Reimer, project coordinator at the Hameln Museum, says “In this scenario the Pied Piper played the role of a so-called locator or recruiter. They were responsible for organising migrations to the east and were said to have worn colourful garments and played an instrument to attract the attention of possible settlers.”

Yet another suggestion is that this is an account of dance mania, also known as St. Vitus’ Dance. This affliction gripped mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries, and has been described as individuals dancing “hysterically through the streets for hours, days, and apparently even months, until they collapsed due to exhaustion or died from heart attack or stroke.”

Another of the darker theories even proposes that the so-called Pied Piper was actually a paedophile who crept into the town of Hamelin to abduct children during their sleep. Perhaps the horrible nature of the children’s disappearance is the reason why there are few details on what happened. Reimer ponders “Did something happen that officials had been covering up? Something so traumatic that it was transmitted orally for so long in the town’s collective memory, over decades and even centuries?”

One of the darker themed representations of the Pied Piper of Hamelin

One of the darker themed representations of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. (Lui-Gon-Jinn/DeviantArt)

There may be More Truth Found in Fairy Tales…

Historical records suggest that the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin was a real event that took place. This could stoke real fear in parent’s hearts – worrying whispers that a number of real children have been lost to some frightening unknown force. The transmission of this story undoubtedly evolved and changed over the centuries, although to what extent is uncertain.

The mystery of what really happened to those children has never been solved. The story also raises the question, if the Pied Piper of Hamelin was based on reality, how much truth is there in other fairy tales that we were told as children?

Top image: An illustration of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Source: Archivist /Adobe Stock

By Ḏḥwty

Updated on November 3, 2020.


Anderson, D., 2012. The Pied Piper of Hamelin: The facts behind the fairy tale. [Online]
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Ashliman, D. L., 2013. The Pied Piper of Hameln and related legends from other towns. [Online]
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Cuervo, M. J. P., 2010. The Lost Children of Hamelin. [Online]
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Dennis, 2011. The Truth Behind the Legend of the Pied Piper. [Online]
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Foster, N., 2014. Is the Pied Piper of Hamelin Based on an Actual Event?. [Online]
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McGarth, J., 2014. Was there really a pied piper of Hamelin?. [Online]
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Pearson, L., 2005. On the trail of the real Pied Piper. [Online]
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Wikipedia, 2014. Pied Piper of Hamelin. [Online]
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Pete Wagner's picture

The takeaway here is that when ‘history’ calls something a ‘true story’, disturbing or not, true or not, they are pushing a narrative.  It’s why it is called his-story – as in just one take on what might have happened.  One take, plausible or not.  That’s history – ALL of it, disturbing, silly, devious, or not.

Nobody gets paid to tell the truth.

"One of the children were left behind ..."

The subject of the sentence is "One." therefore the verb should be "was" not "were."


Great article. As a Folklorist, I have always loved a fictional account you might not have seen. The magazine, ‘Saturday Evening Post,’ in the June 24th, 1961 issue, published a fascinating ‘take’ on the famed story of the Pied Piper & missing children of Hamelin.

It’s entitled, “A Distant Shrine: A Cathedral of Mars,” where astronauts make it to Mars & find Medieval ruins, with the name of ‘Hamelin’ on them, and art motifs of the event which had occurred on Earth centuries before, etc. Thus, the ‘Pied Piper’ was supposed to have come from Mars and stole all the children, takin them to the ‘Red Planet.’.

Daniel N. Rolph, Phd

Philip Olson's picture

I was still in single digits sixty years ago when I first was told the story.  I was fascinated and yearned for more details.

Seems a large part of the fascination was for the brightly colored clothing.  It was rare to have bright primary colors before Rome was founded and even competing textiles were rarely found in the same physical locations.  Loss of technology caused the dark ages, when this story takes place contrasting colors were quite exotic.

One hundred years passing is five generations.  How many personal stories and events from your great great great great great grandparents are still told in your family?  And how accurate are they, considering it was children speaking for their parents at each retelling.


“We do not know,” simple statement of the obvious.  But indeed the admission seems difficult, beyond the ability of some folks to admit.

Speed of dark

Less than 3 days ago I heard from a wise old German lady who is very insightful and very engaged in restoring our world to full health. She just told this story a few days ago, but in it, she mentions that the real Pied Piper was a Devic whom she meets with each June on a marble bench, back to back. He is very angry at our treatment of the world, the animals and eachother. These things really happen and there are real consequences. I sometimes feel as if I am one of those children left behind, to deaf, lame or blind to be led away. 


dhwty's picture


Wu Mingren (‘Dhwty’) has a Bachelor of Arts in Ancient History and Archaeology. Although his primary interest is in the ancient civilizations of the Near East, he is also interested in other geographical regions, as well as other time periods.... Read More

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