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Paleo-Indians of North America

16,700-Year-Old Tools Found in Texas Change Known History of North America

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Archaeologists in Texas have found a set of 16,700-year-old tools which are among the oldest discovered in the West. Until now, it was believed that the culture that represented the continent’s first inhabitants was the Clovis culture. However, the discovery of the ancient tools now challenges that theory, providing evidence that human occupation precedes the arrival of the Clovis people by thousands of years.

According to the Western Digs , archeologists discovered the tools about half an hour north of Austin in Texas, at the site called Gault. They were located a meter deep in water-logged silty clay. The site contained more than 90 stone tools and some human remains including fragments of teeth.

Excavations being carried out at the Gault site, Texas

Excavations being carried out at the Gault site, Texas. Credit: Archaeological Institute of America

The discovery changes everything people have been taught about the history of North America – that is, that the Clovis culture represented the first inhabitants of the continent. The results of the research were presented at the meeting of the Plains Anthropological Conference in 2015. 

A hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted stone spear point, known as the Clovis point. These Clovis points were from the Rummells-Maske Cache Site, Iowa

A hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted stone spear point, known as the Clovis point. These Clovis points were from the Rummells-Maske Cache Site, Iowa ( public domain ).

In the 1990s, at the same excavation site near Austin, archeologists unearthed tapered-oval spear heads dating back 13,000 years. Those times, they believed, belonged to the oldest widespread culture of the continent.  However, the most recent discovery proves that the pre-Clovis inhabitants came to North America at least three millennia earlier.

The Gault site was identified in the 1920s. However, researches didn't accomplish any significant discovery until the 1990s. In 2012, researchers were interested in finding new artifacts related to the Clovis culture. However, they found something even much more impressive – the enamel caps of four adjacent teeth from a young adult female. It allowed them to use the radiocarbon dating method. The results were surprising. They revealed that the tools and artifacts, found in the same layer as the teeth, which includes more than 160,000 stone flakes left over from the tool-making processs, are evidence of the oldest known inhabitants of America. To finally confirm how old the artifacts are, Dr. D. Clark Wernecke, director of the Gault School of Archaeological Research, and his colleagues submitted 18 of the artifacts to a lab for optically stimulated luminescence dating. It is a process of analyzing tiny grains in the soils to reveal when they were last exposed to sunlight. The results proved that the artifacts were up to 16,700 years old. The tools also showed different features to the Clovis tools, which are distinctively shaped.

The pre-Clovis artifacts include more than 90 stone tools, such as bifaces and blades, and more than 160,000 flakes left over from the point-making process.

The pre-Clovis artifacts include more than 90 stone tools, such as bifaces and blades, and more than 160,000 flakes left over from the point-making process. (Photo courtesy Gault School of Archaeological Research)

Many aspects of the technology of this mysterious tribe, like how they made biface blades, were very similar to the Clovis. It seems that the blade technology did not change a lot, the Clovis only improved it. It suggests a mysterious connection between the two cultures. The discovery brought a lot of important information, including the conclusion that the diversity of artifacts uncovered at the Gault site shows that the continent’s earliest peoples were not a static or monolithic group. Moreover, they shed light on the history of human migration. The discovery proved that the first peoples in the Americas were more similar to modern people, than we believed. According to Wrencke they were “intelligent, inventive, creative — and they found ways to adapt to a rapidly changing world.”

April Holloway from Ancient Origins reported in 2014 about different evidence of pre-Clovis inhabitants in America. She wrote:

''A fisherman inadvertently dragged up one of the most significant pieces of evidence for the existence of ancient inhabitants of North America prior to the Clovis people, who walked the land some 15,000 years ago. A small wooden scallop trawler was dredging the seafloor off the coastline of Chesapeake Bay, when he hit a snag. When he pulled up his net, he found a 22,000-year-old mastodon skull and a flaked blade made of a volcanic rock called rhyolite. A report in Live Science  says that the combination of the finds may suggest that people lived in North America, and possibly butchered the mastodon, thousands of years before people from the Clovis culture, who are widely thought to be the first settlers of North America and the ancestors of all living Native Americans.

The mastodon and stone tool finding further supports the perspective that there were other inhabitants of America that preceded the Clovis.  The ancient fossil and tool were first hauled off the seafloor in 1974, and were donated to Gwynn's Island Museum in Virginia, where they sat unnoticed for four decades. However, scientists have now realised the significance of the items after Dennis Stanford, an archaeologist with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., carried out radiocarbon dating on the mastodon tusk and found it was more than 22,000 years old.  While the stone tool cannot be dated, the characteristics of the artifact suggest it is also of the same age.''

Top image: Paleo-Indians of North America. Source: North Wind Picture Archives

By Natalia Klimzcak

Comments

J.R. Thanks for your enlightenment. I guess I should've been able to figure that out - after I read your reply I remembered that meteroites are often found right on the surface in many areas, and not all of them impacted recently.

As to the backdoor meetings and grants etc. you're preaching to the choir. I know it all too well. I have never been involved in any such corruption or greed but know some who have and delight in graft and corruption. It's like politicians . . . most get it in with altruistic aims, but soon greed of money and power consume their human nature and they justify it by convincing themselves they must "play the game" to stay in power "to do any good for their constituents". I imagine the same mentality is prevalent among academia, researchers, explorers in the lab or in the field; they line their pockets and use their power to put stumbling blocks in front of others telling themselves unless they can continue in the game they cannot "make important discoveries for mankind" when their track record of important or meaningful discoveries may be non-existent, or limited at best.

It Depends on the Geological Environment. There are places in the Desert Southwest called "Desert Pavement" where the accumulation of Rocks on the surface can be half a million years old or older. I have found many interesting artifacts on the surface of this Desert Pavement but no one will even take a look at them because they were not found at the level of 26 feet and a 20,000 Dollar Grant that they only actually spend half of on the Project.

This BS is all about Grants and Funds. And if you don't think there are "Back Door" meetings I have news for you...

I'm an admitted archaeology dummy, but it seems implausible to me that artifacts that are over 16,000 years old can be found relatively undisturbed a mere one meter below the surface. They were clearly not pushed to just below the surface by a seismic event or otherwise. I've found tools and other items I have lost over the years, just 2 - 5 years later several inches to nearly 6 inches below the dirt as I do landscaping. I realize gravity will pull iron below the surface at rates an order of magnitude faster than stone tools, but 16,000 years is a long time relative to the shallow depths they were found.

Oh my Goddess... Next someone will start saying that we all walked with the dinosaurs again and that the earth is only Six thousand years old.

Fact..there still is little actual evidence of a clearly identifiable known preclovis tool technology at either Gault or Buttermilk Creek. Tools pictured could very well be fragments of clovis tools as there is no specific traits setting the technology apart from clovis tech other than the deeper location where they were found. Like the evidence Stanford has recently used to promote his solutrean connection, there is little more than speculation based on "similarities" in technology but still no coherent set of artifacts to verify an earlier known technology. All of the afore mentioned researchers are aware of known middle paleo technology being found elsewhere in the USA in at least 8 different states. Clearly identifiable levallois technology is being found by amateurs and professionals alike. Such technology predates clovis tech by thousands of years, yet Gault researchers, Dennis Stanford, and the other "brighter lights" within the pre clovis mafia are willingly ignoring the rock solid evidence consisting of thousands of levallois lithic cores and tools which are clearly paralleled by the middle paleo tech found abroad. Ignoring such clearly identifiable artifact evidence can only be interpreted as supression at this point. The question is why? Mousterian technology in the USA changes everything and they know it. The current ooa migration theory is proven to be just that, theory. Levallois technology is very well known abroad and is never mistaken or confused with other technology because it is so well known having been found more than any other early man evidence, it is unmistakeable. Identification of levallois is obvious when the cores and points and other tools are present, regardless of their location. The technology is unique regardless of where it is found. For scholars such as Stanford, Collins, Adovosio, and the others to willingly ignore such evidence while capitalizing on speculative evidence such as Gault, Meadowcroft, and the others are producing is only testimony of agenda driven archaeological exploitation of the publics lack of information due to intentional supression of evidence which both challenges and disproves the current narrative of our history which is being promoted as truth. An abundance of pre clovis technology has already been found and can be proven, why are they not investigating?

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