Tools of Pre-Clovis Inhabitants

Evidence for Pre-Clovis Inhabitants of Americas Emerges from Sea Floor


A fisherman inadvertently dragged up one of the most significant pieces of evidence for the existence of ancient inhabitants of North America prior to the Clovis people, who walked the land some 15,000 years ago. A small wooden scallop trawler was dredging the seafloor off the coastline of Chesapeake Bay, when he hit a snag. When he pulled up his net, he found a 22,000-year-old mastodon skull and a flaked blade made of a volcanic rock called rhyolite. A report in Live Science says that the combination of the finds may suggest that people lived in North America, and possibly butchered the mastodon, thousands of years before people from the Clovis culture, who are widely thought to be the first settlers of North America and the ancestors of all living Native Americans.

Most researchers believe the first Americans crossed the Bering Strait from Siberia about 15,000 years ago and quickly colonized North America. Artifacts from these ancient settlers, who have been named the Clovis culture after one of the archaeological sites in Clovis, New Mexico, have been found from Canada to the edges of North America. However, a number of discoveries in recent years have challenged the view that the Clovis were the first, and to date, no archaeological evidence of human settlements has ever been found in the Beringian land bridge.

The mastodon and stone tool finding further supports the perspective that there were other inhabitants of America that preceded the Clovis.  The ancient fossil and tool were first hauled off the seafloor in 1974, and were donated to Gwynn's Island Museum in Virginia, where they sat unnoticed for four decades. However, scientists have now realised the significance of the items after Dennis Stanford, an archaeologist with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., carried out radiocarbon dating on the mastodon tusk and found it was more than 22,000 years old.  While the stone tool cannot be dated, the characteristics of the artifact suggest it is also of the same age.

Both pieces show characteristic weathering that indicated they were exposed to the air for a while and then submerged in a saltwater marsh, before finally being buried in seawater, possible at the same time. Furthermore, the flint-knapping technique used to make it was similar to that found in Solutrean tools, which were made in Europe between 22,000 and 17,000 years ago. Taken together, the discovery gives credence to the Solutrean hypothesis, which proposes that the first inhabitants arrived by sea from southwest Europe millennia earlier than the Clovis.

Microstriations and wear shown are typical of tool use

Microstriations and wear shown are typical of tool use. The sharp crisp edges suggest it wasn't tumbled in the surf or carried by water. The wear on the tool suggests it was on dry land at some point and then buried by sea water, which means the tool was older than 14,000 years old. Credit: Dennis Stanford

"I think it's very convincing," said Michael B. Collins, an anthropologist at Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas, who was not involved in the current work. The weathering on both items — first with open air, then saltwater, then seawater exposure — would be almost impossible to get without them having been on land prior to rising sea levels, Collins explained.

While this discovery adds one more piece to a very large puzzle, the debate regarding the first inhabitants of the Americas is far from over.

Featured image: Left: The flaked blade. Right: The mastodon teeth. Credit: Dennis Stanford

By April Holloway


As an actual native who knows our history, NEVER have we said that you people were here before you invaded our lands in the early 1500's. Only in the ignorant imaginations of fools like yourself does this lie get told.
So there is a story about how some of our people were sent to the outside world to spread wisdom and that one day a group of fair-skinned people would come to our shores with the wisdom given to them and our world would enter a peaceful age. This same story also warned about what would happen if these people were corrupted, about how death and destruction would follow them where ever they go. That is the only story that any of our people have in regards to the white race.

I am doing research in this area. Please email so I can see what you have. Would love to talk to you. [email protected]

I live in the Bandera, Texas hill country. I have artifacts, that if they came from the eastern hemisphere, they are scrapers, hand axes, hammer stones and the like. However, if they came from here, they are preforms, cores, freaks of nature, anything but artifacts, or fossils. I have petrified wood, and bone that was worked before it was fossilized. Iron artifacts that are not like any iron I've ever seen, nor in the shape of any tool used by modern man. I have petrified body parts, that are passed off as chert formations. Chert seems to be an excellent excuse for anything un-explainable to the mainstream scientists. After 11 years of tracking this "theory", I'm convinced there was an entire evolution of man, previously to us, right here in the western hemisphere. I even know of lots of Indian lore, that tells of the white man that lived here when the Indian's ancestors came here. It's hard to find a pristine fossil in the hill country, that hasn't been used as a tool, or flattened out of shape, by what I'm convinced was a tsunami, probably from the "possible" comet they say landed in the caribbean some 65 million years ago. Does anyone know if these falsifications will ever be rectified, and true history unveiled?!

How did the use of different materials (flint, copper, bronze, iron and steel) progress through early history and why were certain metals and materials used..

angieblackmon's picture

as a child i never questioned the history i learned in school. columbus discovered america...that's what the book said, the teacher taught and the correct answers to the test. but then you start to grow up and travel and see and hear new things and you wonder, how could such a big area of land remain unknown? uninhabitated? well, it wasn't...lots of people where here at different times. one of the things i think we really lack in parts of north america is the ruins. sure you have some out west and mounds and things...but where is the rest of it? destroyed? lost? covered up and erased from history?

love, light and blessings



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