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Ogham sticks

The Celtic Ogham: An Ancient Tree Alphabet that May Disappear Before Showing its Roots

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In secluded fields, on the walls of churches, and beneath construction sites, stones have been found with intricate markings that rise from the lower left up to the center and then down to the lower right. This is the ancient Celtic Tree Alphabet known as Ogham (pronounced owam). Archaeological linguists have managed to translate the symbols, yet no one knows for certain how or why this language came into existence. Efforts are being made to preserve the relics; however, the stones are weathering and crumbling at an alarming rate.

Attempts to Save the Unique Ogham Inscriptions

There are roughly 400 stones known to contain Ogham markings, 360 of which are in Ireland. The rest have been discovered scattered across Wales, Scotland, England, and the Isle of Man. The oldest relic is believed to date back to the 4th century AD, but one must assume that earlier examples existed on perishable mediums, such as wood, possibly as far back as the 1st century AD.

An ancient ogham stone on the top of Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. (Cynthia /Adobe Stock)

For the most part, the messages contain names of people and places, perhaps to demarcate boundaries and property. These old, weathered rocks are covered with lines and slashes, cut directly into the stone. Before the realization that Ogham was a distinct language, many believed the cuts to be merely decorative.

One of the major problems facing archaeologists in their attempts to preserve Ogham stones is the unique physical style of the inscriptions. "Most inscriptions on stone are in the face of the stone," said Nora White, an archaeological linguist studying Ogham. "But with Ogham, it wraps around the angled edge of the stone."

Ogham stone, Kilkalmedar, Ireland. (nyiragongo /Adobe Stock)

This unique reading experience is part of the allure of the Ogham writings; however, it makes it very difficult to capture the inscriptions for posterity - an ordinary photograph or drawing cannot capture an entire passage. Fortunately, recent technological advances have allowed researchers like White to create three-dimensional scans of the stone pillars. 3-D models of the known stones are quickly being captured and preserved as part of the ‘Ogham in 3-D Project,’ an initiative sponsored by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies’ School of Celtic Studies.

Celtic Respect for Trees

The ancient Celts worshiped trees as spirits or as objects inhabited by spirits. Much of the Celtic mysticism revolves around the magical properties of different trees. For example, the birch tree is often considered the primary tree. A feminine power, the Druids believed that the magical properties of the birch included protection of children, creativity, and purification.

Another important tree was the mighty oak. A masculine power, the magical prosperities of oak were linked to security, strength, and loyalty.

‘The Druid Grove.’

‘The Druid Grove.’ (Public Domain)

The Celtic respect for trees influenced many aspects of their lives and is considered to be fundamental to the Ogham script. The markings center along a long vertical reference line, the ‘stem,’ which is then crossed by characters comprised of lines or slashes known as ‘twigs’. The first letter in this alphabet represents the ‘B’ sound and is made with a single straight line perpendicular to the stem on the right side. The name of this character is Beighe, birch tree.

Legends Behind the Rare Celtic Alphabet

Of the 20 characters that make up the Ogham alphabet, five are made up of straight-line twigs on the right side of the stem. In addition to Beighe, there is Luis (II), Fern (III), Sail (IIII), and Nin (IIIII). These characters represent, respectively, the letters L, W, S, and N; the names of the characters translate to herb, alder, willow, and letters.

Although researchers have been able to decode Ogham, there is still a great deal of debate over the reason behind its invention, especially because the Latin script, and to a lesser extent Greek script, were in common usage at this point in time.

The Celtic Alphabet called Ogham. (zgurski1980 /Adobe Stock)

Legend has it that the language was first arranged as a result of the fall of the Tower of Babel. The great Fenius Farsa, King of the Scythians (Scythia is the classical Greek name for the Central Asian dominions) heard the fate of Nimrod’s people and came at once. In the King’s retinue were 72 scholars who hoped to study and make sense of the confused languages.

Unfortunately, by the time they reached the plain of Shinar, the cursed people had all dispersed. King Fenius thus sent his scholars out to the far edges of the known world in order to learn the multitude of languages. The search lasted for 10 years and Fenius remained near the ruins of the Tower the whole time, waiting for his loyal servants to return with their findings.

Once the search was complete, the King created a special language known as Bérla tóbaide. It was made up of the best elements of each of the confused languages. He also devised the Beithe-luis-nuin, a perfect writing system to accompany the new language. This script was commonly referred to as the Ogham.

‘The Tower of Babel’ (1594) by Lucas van Valckenborch.

‘The Tower of Babel’ (1594) by Lucas van Valckenborch. (Public Domain)

This fantastic tale is not the only legend that exists to explain Ogham. Modern researchers also have a plethora of beliefs to explain the language’s purpose, and while they are not as extraordinary as the Legend of Fenuis Farsa, they are equally disputed.

Some scholars argue that Ogham was created so that the Irish could communicate without the British knowing what was being said (the Brits were the Celts’ enemy, even in the first centuries AD). Another hypothesis argues that the alphabet was created by early Christian missionaries in Ireland because they found it difficult to capture the sounds of Gaelic with the Latin alphabet.

Ogham stone in abandoned churchyard, Ireland. (diak /Adobe Stock)

Still another hypothesis posits that Ogham was originally a secret hand signal language of the ancient Druids that ultimately made its way into permanence by being carved into stones. This idea rests on the similarity between the groupings of one to five twigs for a sound and the five fingers of the person passing on messages in a secret sign language. However, few academics believe this last hypothesis to be credible.

Ogham alphabet, Plumbridge.

Ogham alphabet, Plumbridge. (Kenneth Allen/CC BY SA 2.0)

Archaeologists continue working to find as many Ogham stones as possible and to create digital copies of them. Once the preservation of Ogham is secured, the business of comparing the messages with other ancient texts and symbols will begin in earnest in order to unveil the secrets behind the mysterious Irish tree language.

Ogham stone in Carrickart, Co. Donegal, Ireland. (pmangan /Adobe Stock)

Top Image: Ogham sticks. Ogham is an ancient Celtic language. Source: A Walk Around Britain / Flickr

By Kerry Sullivan


Ager, Simon. "Ogham"  Ogham Alphabet. Omniglot, 2016. Web. 09 July 2016.

Giaimo, Cara. "Preserving Ireland's Ancient, Mysterious Tree-Based Alphabet."  Atlas Obscura. Atlas Obscura, 19 May 2016. Web. 09 July 2016.

Joelle. "Celtic Tree Calendar - Ogham Alphabet."  Celtic Paths. Joelle's Sacred Grove, 1998. Web. 09 July 2016.



"Ogham is an ancient Celtic language."

It is an alphabet. An alphabet is not a language.

I undertook a study of the angular values of the Ogham script in my study of the Jade Eagle that was found at the Chinese Neolithic Lingjiatan astronomical site.

The phonetic clues that are still contained in the Ogham texts that you showed here and in Mesopamian text, match the translations I undertook of the Stone Age Text found at Lingjiatan. See “The Babel Text” by Derek Cunningham, and the article I published earlier on ancient origins

Derek Cunningham

Author of:

Scotland & Shakespeare’s Third Prophecy – a new look at the history of Scotland and the mystery behind Thane Banquo and Shakespeare’s Third Prophecy

The Babel Texts – Discover the ancient writing of the Stone Age

The Map That Talked – the book that recovered an ancient Stone Age Map that is based on the angular Babel Text. Find out why the Greek constellations are lined to land and water.

Dr. Derek Cunningham
Author of:
The Map that Talked - How astronomy was used to map the ancient world
The Babel Texts - Decoding the early text of the Stone Age
Scotland and Shakespeare's Third Prophecy - Recovering Scotland's Forgotten past

My recommendation would be to replace the word 'Celt' in that sentence with 'Gael.'

'the Brits were the Gaels’ enemy, even in the first centuries AD' is not historically misleading.

Rome certainly qualified as the enemy of the Celts. However, the Roman province of Brittania didn't last, nor did it ever encompass all of Britain. The northern Brits of the time (largely the Picts) were still Brits, but not Romano-Brits. Even the subsequent Anglo-Saxon rise did not ensure that no Brits were Celtic-speakers.

Therefore, at no stage in known history would there seem to be a time when the Irish could be called 'Celts' while no Brits could be called thus.

Forget Rome. The worst enemy of the Celts were themselves.

"the Brits were the Celts’ enemy , even in the first centuries AD."

The Brythonnic-speaking (P-Celtic) Britons weren't Celtic-speakers (and therefore 'Insular Celts') themselves then? Interesting interpretation, that one. In fact, it is hard to take the article seriously after that.


Kerry Sullivan's picture

Kerry Sullivan

Kerry Sullivan has a Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts and is currently a freelance writer, completing assignments on historical, religious, and political topics.

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