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The tower of Babel

The Legendary Tower of Babel: What Does it Mean?


One of the many fantastic stories in the Book of Genesis is the Tower of Babel, a tall construction made in Babylonia after the Deluge. The gist of the story is: All human beings used to speak the same language. As they came to settle in Mesopotamia, they decided to build a city with a tower to reach the heavens. Through this endeavor, mankind intended to create a name for himself. God, however, had other plans. Mankind’s language was confused, and they were scattered over the earth. As a result, the city and the tower were never completed. Regardless of whether you believe this story actually took place, there are several interesting ways of looking at it.

A Literal Approach to the Tower of Babel Story

One way of approaching the story is the literal approach. If one accepts that the Tower of Babel was a historical fact, then it would be expected that some sort of remains or ruins of the tower would exist. This, however, has not been identified by archaeology. The closest candidate for the Tower of Babel may perhaps be the Etemenanki of Babylon. This was a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk, the patron god of Babylon. It has been claimed that this structure was the inspiration for the Tower of Babel. Given that ziggurats were found in Mesopotamia, the setting of the story, and that they were monumental structures, it is not too difficult to see how they may have been used in the story of the Tower of Babel.

Did the Tower of Babel Exist?

In 2017, Andrew George, a professor of Babylonia at the University of London, reported that he believes he has found solid evidence for the Tower of Babel in an ancient baked tablet from the city of Babylon. The baked clay tablet shows what the ziggurat looked like, with its seven steps. It shows the king with his conical hat and staff. And below is text that describes the commissioning of the tower’s construction.

Dr. George said:

“This is a very strong piece of evidence that the tower of Babel story was inspired by this real building. At the top … there is a relief depicting a step tower and … a figure of a human being carrying a staff with a conical hat on. Below that relief is a text which has been chiseled into the monument, and the label is easily read. It reads: Etemenanki, Ziggurat Babel. And that means ‘the Ziggurat or Temple Tower of the City of Babylon.’ The building and its builder on the same relief.”

The people enlisted to construct the tower, are translated by Dr. George as, “From the Upper Sea [Mediterranean] to the Lower Sea [Persian Gulf] the Far-Flung Lands and Teeming Peoples of the Habitations.”

Experts had already thought King Nebuchadnezzar II actually did build a ziggurat in Babylonia after he established the city as his capital. The tablet provides more evidence. Archaeologists also think the tower of Babel was 300 feet (91 meters) along the sides and 300 feet (91 meters) tall. Only a fraction of the building remains, scattered and broken.

What Does the Tower of Babel Symbolize?

Regardless of the question of the tower’s existence, another way to examine the Tower of Babel story is through the symbolic approach. The context of the story, i.e. the story of the Tower of Babel being recorded in the Book of Genesis, would make it reasonable to expect a religious message behind it. It has been suggested that the Tower of Babel is a symbol for humanity’s vanity. For instance, the use of brick and mortar represent pride in man-made materials. Thus, the use of these materials over stone and tar, which are natural and more durable materials, may be read as mankind’s misplaced confidence in his own abilities.

Thus, the Tower of Babel may be seen as a monument to mankind’s ability and achievement. Man is promptly reminded of his frailty when God decides to confuse their languages and scatter them. While some regard this story as a warning against the sin of pride, others would prefer to question the kind of God that is being portrayed in the story. Regardless, the story seems to convey a notion of doom and gloom for humanity.

Gustave Dore's depiction of the Tower of Babel according to the biblical interpretation. (Public Domain)

Can the Tower of Babel Explain Worldwide Diversity?

Another way of viewing this story, however, may shine a more positive light on the Tower of Babel. Instead of being a lesson against pride, this may be a tool to explain the diversity of peoples in the world. After all, the chapter preceding the story of the Tower of Babel deals with the various nations that descended from the sons of Noah. This etiological approach, in which myths are used to explain human conditions, is visible in many other cultures. For instance, in the mythology of the Blackfoot Indians, Old Man, the creator, gave different colored water to people to drink. As a result, different peoples began to speak different languages. Without the knowledge that we possess today, these myths would have served to throw light on the great mysteries of life. Besides, they make pretty good camp-fire stories.

Although language was confused, and mankind scattered across the world, I can’t help but think that we’ve come full circle, almost at least. Take this article as an example. It will probably be read by people from different parts of the world. In that sense, we are connected, rather than scattered. Also, through translations, we are able to overcome language barriers. Moreover, at times we may even communicate through empathy, without the need for speech.

Yet, there’s one part of the story we have not achieved. The people in the story of the Tower of Babel were working together to build a monument. Sadly, human beings aren’t quite doing that today. Wars, the exploitation of the poor, and human trafficking are just some examples of the ways in which we are destroying our fellow man/woman, instead of cooperating with him/her. Perhaps it’s time we finish building the Tower of Babel.

Top Image: ‘The Tower of Babel’, by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Source: Public Domain

By Ḏḥwty


Ashliman, D. L., 2003. Blackfoot Creation and Origin Myths. Available at:

Fairchild, M., 2014. The Tower of Babel - Bible Story Summary. Available at:

The Bible: Standard King James Version, 2014. Available at:



Walter Mattfeld's picture

Ziggurats were conceived of as being artifical mountains for the gods to descend upon. A room was provided at their tops for the God to rest in, on a bed. The Bible, in error, calls the ziggurats Towers, but they were really artificial mountains. The Bible claims the Tower of Babel was made as an affront to God, but Mesopotamian texts say that these artifical mountains were made to honor the gods, not to offend the gods. A few inscriptions found by archaeologists reveal these ziggurats had names, one of which was KUR, meaning “MOUNTAIN.” So the Sumerian EDIN had mountains, artifical mountains, for the gods to rest upon. In the Bible EDEN’s God is portrayed as enthroned atop Mt. Zion. Whereas EDIN’S gods were accomdated by ziggurats.

Walter R. Mattfeld

Walter Mattfeld's picture

The Babylonian texts have their Ziggurat towers of brick representing artifical mountains. Some of their gods were thought of as inhabiting the mountains ringing Mesopotamia. Herodotus (circa 450 BC) visited Babylon and asked the Babylonian priests about their city's ziggurat. They explained that originally the gods had built it to have a place to rest in upon godly visits to the earth (recast in Genesis as God descending to the earth to visit the tower). A room atop the ziggurat was equipped with a bed for the god to rest or sleep in upon infrequent nightly visits. He was even provided a beautiful maiden to have sex with, if he wanted. A table near the bed was provided with food, fresh fruit the EDIN'S City-Gardens, for the visiting god to eat (the gods had bodies of flesh and could die if having no earthly food to consume). The Bible portrays the tower as being made to glorify men, but it reality, it made to glorify their god, not man. The Bible mocks the tower of Babel, associating it with the Hebrew word balal, meaning "confusion," when, in fact, in Babylonian it translates BAB EL as meaning "the Gate of God." Babylon, being a cosmopolitan city, had a bewildering array of different languages in its streets and Exilic Jews (587-560 BC) exposed to all this, could have envisioned a confusion of languages about the Ziggurat. Ziggurat means "to be high" in Babylonian. Some ziggurats were called Kur in the Babylonian language meaning "mountain." In the Bible God dwells on a Mountain, Mount Zion.

Walter R. Mattfeld

Very well thought out,makes you think deep.

maybe it was a space elevator?

Another thought might be that the survivors of the flood were remembering the previous civilization, that had been destroyed by the flood. IF there was a worldwide civilization, the survivors were “scattered” throughout the world and began speaking other languages when they lost contact as the generations passed. I know this is not biblical thought but just throwing it out there for consideration.


dhwty's picture


Wu Mingren (‘Dhwty’) has a Bachelor of Arts in Ancient History and Archaeology. Although his primary interest is in the ancient civilizations of the Near East, he is also interested in other geographical regions, as well as other time periods.... Read More

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