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Mesopotamia

3D reconstruction of an ancient Mesopotamian city.

4,000-Year-Old Lost Mesopotamian City Discovered in Iraq

A 4,000-year-old lost city has been discovered in Iraqi Kurdistan, according to researchers. “We weren’t expecting to discover a city here at all,” said Christine Kepinski, who explored the site,...
Origins of Aphrodite

Aphrodite: The True Origins of the Greek Goddess of Love, Sex, and Beauty

Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, sex, and beauty and there are many tales of how she could entice both gods and mortals to lust after her. In one of the most famous images of the goddess, we...
The engraving of the gods depicted on the kudurru were arranged in a particular order.

Signs of a Civilization? The Sacred Boundary Stones of Babylonia

A kudurru (meaning ‘boundary’ or ‘frontier’ in Akkadian ) is a type of stone document used in ancient Mesopotamia . While stone monuments have been used at various times in ancient Mesopotamia, it is...
Mesopotamian god

Utu - Shamash: Meospotamian God of the Sun, Justice and the Underworld

Utu was a solar deity and god of justice in the ancient Mesopotamian pantheon, and also served as a judge in the Underworld. Whilst Utu was the god’s name in Sumerian, he was known in Akkadian as...
exorcism

Demonic Exorcisms in the Temple Schools of Mesopotamia

In the temple-schools of Mesopotamia, students learned exorcism rituals, how to mix healing atonements, perform astrology, and how to cure demonic possession. While these skills may seem archaic now...
Ur-Shulgi. King Shulgi is credited with the completion of the Great ziggurat of Ur.

The Mighty Deeds of King Shulgi of Ur, Master of Mesopotamian Monarchs

In the early second millennium BC, the city-states of Mesopotamia thrived in the so-called “Ur III period.” Assuming political frameworks previously abandoned in times of chaos, the rulers of the...
The tower of Babel

The Legendary Tower of Babel: What Does it Mean?

One of the many fantastic stories in the Book of Genesis is the Tower of Babel, a tall construction made in Babylonia after the Deluge. The gist of the story is: All human beings used to speak the...
Standard of Ur mosaic, 26th century BC.

Both a Princess and a Priestess, What Did the First Known Author Have to Share with the World?

Louise Pryke / The Conversation The world’s first known author is widely considered to be Enheduanna, a woman who lived in the 23rd century BC in ancient Mesopotamia (approximately 2285 – 2250 BC)...
Sorcerer in hood standing in front of an ancient destructed Babylon tower with flood, fire & hurricane illustration

Mesopotamian Magic: Ancient Tablets Reveal a World of Witches, Sorcerers and Exorcists

Ancient Mesopotamia was a vast region in Western Asia which has become known as the ‘cradle of civilization’ due to the huge number of feats the culture achieved. Agriculture, animal herding, and...
Relief representing a two-headed eagle on the sphinx located at the right of the Sphinx Gate, Alaca Höyük, Turkey.

How a Two Headed Bird of Prey Ruled Ancient Mesopotamia and Hatti

Several infamous empires of the early modern period and current modern periods bore curious insignia. The Byzantine, Austrian, and Russian Empires all adopted the symbol of a mythical creature, a...
King Naram-Sin of Akkad, grandson of Sargon, leading his army to victory.

How Climate Change Caused the World’s First Ever Empire To Collapse

By Vasile Ersek / The Conversation Gol-e-Zard Cave lies in the shadow of Mount Damavand, which at more than 5,000 metres dominates the landscape of northern Iran. In this cave, stalagmites and...
 Khopesh Design

Khopesh—The Egyptian Sword that Forged an Empire

Ancient Egypt has been very important in shaping modern Western civilization. For centuries, Egypt has occupied a place in the Western imagination as a mysterious land full of ancient wisdom, hidden...
The Royal Game of Ur.

The Enigmatic Ancient Royal Game of Ur – Will We Ever Understand It?

The Royal Game of Ur (known also as the Game of Twenty Squares) is a board game from ancient Mesopotamia. This two-player game is one of the oldest known board games and was immensely popular in the...
Hanging gardens of Semiramis - before Babylon was destroyed.

The Monumental Fall of Babylon: What Really Shattered the Empire?

The fall of Babylon is a historical event that occurred in 539 BC. This event saw the conquest of Babylon by the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great and marked the end of the Neo-Babylonian...
‘The Birth of the Milky Way’ (1636-1637) by Peter Paul Rubens.

Breastfeeding Beliefs: From Invincibility to Universal Creation

Breastfeeding is an infant feeding practice in which a child is fed breast milk directly from breast to mouth. Breastfeeding could be performed by the mother herself or by a wet nurse. Evidence of...
Relief image on the Tablet of Shamash, British Library room 55. Found in Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah), in Ancient Babylonia; it dates from the 9th century BC and shows the sun god Shamash on the throne, in front of the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina (888-855 BC) between two interceding deities. The Babylonian language text tells how the king made a new cultic statue for the god and gave privileges to his temple.

Ancient Babylonian Reborn After Having Been Silenced for 2000 Years

Almost 2,000 years after falling out of use, a Cambridge University linguistics specialist, Dr. Martin Worthington has learned how to speak ancient Babylonian and is not only campaigning to revive it...

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