25,000-Year-Old Buildings Found in Russia

25,000-Year-Old Buildings Found in Russia


In the Caucasus mountains of Russia, not far from the cities Tzelentzchik, Touapse, Novorossiysk and Sochi, there are hundreds of megalithic monuments known as dolmens. Russian and foreign archaeologists have not yet discovered their use.

All these megalithic dolmens you see below in the pictures are dated from 10,000 to 25,000 years ago, according to the website  Kykeon. Other archaeologists put the age of these megalithic structures at 4000 to 6,000 years old.

Thousands of prehistoric megalithic monuments are known throughout the world. Some of the least known outside the former Soviet Union, however, are those in the Caucasus.

These dolmens cover the Western Caucasus on both sides of the mountain ridge, in an area of approximately 12.000 square kilometers of Russia and Abkhazia.

The Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehistoric architecture, built with precisely dressed cyclopic stone blocks. 

The stones were, for example, shaped into 90-degree angles, to be used as corners or were curved to make a perfect circle. The monuments date between the end of the 4th millennium and the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C.

While generally unknown in the rest of Europe, these Russian megaliths are equal to the great megaliths of Europe in terms of age and quality of architecture, but are still of an unknown origin.

The Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehistoric architecture, built with precisely dressed large stone blocks. The stones were, for example, shaped into 90-degree angles, to be used as corners or were curved to make a circle.

In spite of the variety of Caucasian monuments, they show strong similarities with megaliths from different parts of Europe and Asia, like the Iberian Peninsula, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Israel and India. 

A range of hypotheses has been put forward to explain these similarities and the building of megaliths on the whole, but still it remains unclear.

Approximately 3,000 of these megalithic monuments are known in the Western Caucasus, but more are constantly being found, while more and more are also being destroyed. Today, many are in great disrepair and will be completely lost if they are not protected from vandals and general neglect.

The dolmens are found in the area of Krasnodar.  Krasnodar  is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River about 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.

Concentrations of megaliths, dolmens and stone labyrinths have been found (but little studied) throughout the Caucasus Mountains, including the Abkhazia. 

Most of them are represented by rectangular structures made of stone slabs or cut in rocks with holes in their facade. 

These dolmens cover the Western Caucasus on both sides of the mountain ridge, in an area of approximately 12.000 square kilometres of Russia and Abkhazia.

The map above shows locations of known Dolmen structures. The original source for the following images came via a Russian Website.

The dolmens have a limited variety in their architecture. The floor plans are square, trapezoidal, rectangular and round. All of the dolmens are punctuated with a portal in the center of the facade. While round portholes are the most common, square ones are also found. 

In front of the facade is a court that usually splays out, creating an area where rituals possibly took place. The court is usually outlined by large stone walls, sometimes over a meter high, which enclose the court. 

It is in this area that Bronze and Iron Age pottery has been found – which helped date these tombs -, along with human remains, bronze tools and silver, gold and semi-precious stone ornaments.

The repertoire of decoration for these tombs is not great. Vertical and horizontal zigzags, hanging triangles and concentric circles are the most common motifs. One decorative motif that is quite common is found across the top of the porthole slab. 

It can best be described as a lintel held up by two columns. Pairs of breasts, done in relief, have also been found on a few tombs. These breasts usually appear above the two columns of the porthole decoration.

Perhaps related to these are the stone plugs, which were used to block the porthole, and are found with almost every tomb. They are sometimes phallic-shaped.

One of the most interesting megalithic complexes – group of three dolmens – stands in a row on a hill above Zhane River on the Black Sea coast in the Krasnodar area near Gelendzhik, Russia.

Map of Dolmens in Western Caucasus.

Map of Dolmens in Western Caucasus. (c)

In this area there is a great concentration of all types of megalithic sites including settlements and dolmen cemeteries. Large stone mounds surrounded the two monuments.

Some unusual items associated with dolmens are big round stone balls, double balls and animal sculptures.

The article ‘ 25,000-Year-Old Buildings Found in Russia’ was originally published on Humans Are Free and has been republished with permission.

Translated from Greek and Russian by  invisiblelycans 


Principle Investigator: Dr.Viktor Trifonov, Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg

Location of Project: Russia, Gelendjik, Krasnadar area, Black Sea coast

Images from  thelivingmoon website

Markovin, V.I.,  Western Caucasian Dolmens

Megre, V., 1995.  Ringing Cedars Series

Trifonov, V., 2006. Russia’s megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St.Petersburg:  The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences

Kudin, M., 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path - Russian Megaliths

Reading (in English, Dutch, German, Russian, Swedish):

J.-P. Mohen, 1993.  The World of Megaliths

R. Joussaume, 1988.  Dolmens for the Dead

K.Wilson, 2001. Op expeditie in de Kaukasus //Archeobrief, #17 (winter 2001) // Stichting voor de Nederlandse Archeologie

V.I. Markovin, 1993. Der Kurgan Psynako I, Rayon Tuapse im Krasnodar Land (Westkaukasus) // Zeitschrift fur Archaologie. Heft.27

V. Trifonov, 2001. What do we know about Caucasian dolmens for sure? // Caucasian Dolmens and Ancient Civilizations (IV – I mill. BC). Krasnodar

S. Hansen, 1996. Megalitgravene i Kaukasus: er de udlobere af de vesteuropaeiske? // Popular Arkeologi, argang 14, #4 Bronze Age to New Age // Archaeology, May/June 1999


these buildings could demonstrate the utilitarian aspect of ancient astronomy.

Most of these are found near the Black Sea coast. Couldn't they be "passage graves" like those found along the Atlantic coast of Europe? The size and precision of the openings look like something ancient stargazers would look through to anticipate the change of seasons. Very important in ancient agrarian societies. And, the structures would have been built to be extremely stable and solid over time to serve that purpose properly. Has anyone investigated the orientation of the openings compared to stellar positions in antiquity?

With respect to your thoughts here, there are a couple factors to be noticed in these. Judging the size of these Holes by the surrounding Trees and Etc., many appear to be pretty small for practical Human entrance and exit. Also noticeable is that they seem to be designed for plugging from the outside only. Most important feature they lack as an Abode would be some sort of Smoke hole. Even Igloos have an Exit Hole for Smoke. To build a fire in one of these would be suicide.

Your explanation is just as far fetched Robert... I think what is important to remember is that these early Cultures were still Semi-Migratory. They would relocate from Campsite to Campsite as Resources in the different areas flourished.

I think it is possible that the locations of these were known as very productive natural places to collect Wild Grains and over time it was realized that some sort of storage for these Grains was absolutely necessary for survival.

The Native Americans did the same, they migrated around to follow certain resources as they came into season. Returning each year back to each known productive location. But some tools they left in place at each location to be reused the next season such as Metates and Cooking Stones because it was impractical to carry these heavy objects with them as the Migrated.

I think it could be the same with these. They lived a Mobile Lifestyle in simple Abodes but invested extensive time and labor into an absolutely necessary Tool for their Survival...Community Grain Storage and collection points while it was in season.

Come on, why would anyone drag tonnes of rock from miles away taking weeks if not months to assemble using many men when you could build a cabin from trees in the vicinity in a few days. It was a technology to be used by the community or people coming from outside areas to charge their seeds and then take them back and plant them. That is why you have such large communities in unusual places, ie not river plains and surrounding hillsides. It all depends where the telluric energies are concentrated and released. Honestly, cavemen in stone huts is seriously childish and uninformed. Other than the books and videos I mentioned earlier, why not have a look at the documentary series The Pyramid Code, especially episode 2 titled High Level Technology, yes HIGH LEVEL TECHNOLOGY of the PYRAMIDS. It is on youtube to watch without charge, and then come back for a proper discussion.


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