Trialeti Gold Goblet from ancient Georgia, 1700 – 1500 BC, when gold was still in fashion in every way.		Source: Steve Batiuk / ASOR Photo Collection

Caucasus Societies Developed an Aversion to Gold “Bling,” Says Study


New research has shown puzzling evidence of gold going out of fashion for hundreds of years in ancient societies, societies which been at the forefront of technological innovation in gold mining and gold crafts. The study was undertaken by Prof. Nathaniel Erb-Satullo, lecturer in archaeological science at the Cranfield Forensic Institute of Cranfield University, England.

The research, published in the journal  Nature, was based on the analysis of more than 4500 Bronze and Iron Age objects from across 89 sites in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, collectively known as the Caucasus region. Using geospatial analysis and archaeological evidence, the Prof. Erb-Satullo tested different hypotheses for the sharp reduction in gold use across most of the region from 1500 to 800 BC. Prof. Erb-Satullo scanned more than 120 years of published data on a variety of gold objects, such as beads and ornaments, figurines, and utensils, from 4000 to 500 BC.

Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece in ancient Greek myth, during a period when gold was very much in fashion in every way. (Underworld Painter / Public domain)

Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece in ancient Greek myth, during a period when gold was very much in fashion in every way. (Underworld Painter /  Public domain )

Gold Trends: From Coveted Material To Rejected Metal

The Caucasus region was one of the earliest to develop sophisticated gold mining and working techniques and had acquired fame for its vast gold treasures, as the Greek myth of  Jason and the Golden Fleece  demonstrates. According to the myth, the Golden Fleece was the pelt of the winged  ram Chrysomallos and was a symbol of authority and kingship. The hero  Jason and his crew of  Argonauts, set out on a quest for the fleece on the orders of King  Pelias, so as to place Jason rightfully on the throne of  Iolcus in Thessaly. With the help of  Medea, they acquired the Golden Fleece.

However, from 1500 to 800 BC,  precious gold  fell drastically out of favor with the elite of the  Caucasus region . Prof. Erb-Satullo worked on various premises regarding the factors that could have caused this decline. He concluded that social rather than economic or demographic factors were the primary causes of this fall.

Using spatial data, the study found no correlation between access to gold mines and the magnitude of the decline in gold use in the region. Further, genetic and other archaeological data showed no sign of any major demographic disruption to suggest  social collapse  and technological loss. In fact, there is evidence for population growth, economic well-being, and advancement in  metal-working techniques  for other metals.

According to the  Heritage Daily , Prof. Erb-Satullo said, “The findings suggest that rather than any shortages, the abandonment of gold was due to  cultural factors . The way that gold objects were used in society provided clues as to the nature of this social rejection.”

Before the decline set in, gold had become the ultimate symbol of  elitism in society . The evidence for this comes from the vast volume of gold objects buried with the dead to accompany them into the afterlife. As a reaction against this kind of “conspicuous consumption,” there was an aversion to the use of gold as well as other  status symbols  in the period from 1500 to 800 BC.

"People still buried their dead with an array of grave goods and social differences were still visible, but huge, ostentatious burial mounds disappeared, and gold is noticeably absent. In general there was a turn away from a social order that emphasized elite individuals towards one that centered political and religious institutions, manifested by the appearance of monumental fortresses and sacred shrines,” says a  Cranfield University press release  quoting Dr Erb-Satullo.

Even in ancient societies, social factors and social influences, as is the case with gold, created long-lasting trends. (Андрей Яланский / Adobe Stock)

Even in ancient societies, social factors and social influences, as is the case with gold, created long-lasting trends. ( Андрей Яланский  / Adobe Stock)

Progress, Influenced by Social Factors, is not Always Linear

The research has more generic findings as well for technological innovation in societies. It shows that technological progress is not always linear, and its spread is not always inevitable. Rather, it is heavily influenced by social factors.

Interestingly, Prof. Erb-Satullo also argues how it is generally technological “firsts” that attract attention and not technological “lasts” or instances of abandonment and rejection of particular technologies. According to him, it is actually the “lasts” that provide a better insight into how key technologies and trends were adopted and spread in the first place.

“This study shows that social factors play a major role in the collapse of technological systems, and that such systems are not inherently self-sustaining. The loss, abandonment, and rejection of technologies occurs in a range of circumstances that have not been highlighted by prior research. Societies may reject technologies even after widespread adoption if the foundations of cultural acceptability shift,” he says.

Top image: Trialeti Gold Goblet from ancient Georgia, 1700 – 1500 BC, when gold was still in fashion in every way. Source: Steve Batiuk /  ASOR Photo Collection

By Sahir Pandey


Cranfield University Press Release. 2021. Cranfield research reveals how gold 'bling' was rejected by ancient societies. Available at:

Heritage Daily. 2021.  Gold ‘bling’ fell out of fashion in ancient times . Available at:

Nathaniel L. Ebr-Satullo.2021.  Technological rejection in regions of early gold innovation revealed by geospatial analysis.  Available at:


Invisihole's picture

Here are some quotes from this link to help further your understanding
"Slaves in our contemporary understanding of the word were basically only prisoners of war, foreigners" - says Dr. Ćwiek. Their largest number appeared on the Nile in the imperial period, the New State (1550-1069 BC), when the Egyptian borders expanded greatly as a result of successful conquests. The largest number of Asians, inhabitants of Syro-Palestine, and many Nubians from the area of "black Africa" came to the land of the pharaohs this way. - Notice the dates listed, showing how far back the concept goes and also;
"In exceptional cases, foreigners would make staggering careers. This was the case of Mai-per-heri, who lived during the reign of Hatshepsut (15th century BC). Although he was of Nubian origin, possibly a prisoner of war or a hostage brought up in the court of the Pharaoh, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings. "His Egyptian name, which means +Lion on the battlefield+ may suggest that the reason for this distinction could have been wartime merits, maybe even saving the life of the Pharaoh" - says Dr. Ćwiek." There are several examples from across the globe that showcase about the same thing. I know it is nicer to believe that people in ancient times were more about love, peace, and harmony, but evidence shows contrary.

It's easy to blame archeologists but there have been hieroglyphics, tablets and scrolls found that dictate how much laborers, head foreman, grain for food, building supplies and numerous other items were paid. So unless there was fake news in the time of Hatshepsut or construction of tombs in the Valley of the Kings, slaves and laborers were used for the so called elite.

Invisihole's picture

While I do believe a lot of what we gather today is speculation, we are certainly learning as we go. For instance, there is evidence that ancient egypt structures were indeed crafted by what we consider slaves, but their treatment wasn't what we originally believed. For example, the notion that the Pharaoh would enlist Jewish slaves to build and punish with whips and torture, as per certain religious curriculum dictates, is slowly deteriorating. We have found evidence of so called slave camps that show signs of hierarchy, medical treatment, farming for food and decent living quarters. There was most certainly elite members in ancient societies. I believe it to be human nature to form such structures of power, especially once the populations grow in numbers. Small clans even in ancient Scotland show this. The ruling class wasn't just a modern idea formed in the 15th or 16th century. Perhaps it grew darker or more sinister than originally planned but it existed. Too many cultures all over the globe, that had no interaction has proven this. It's not a modern construct.

Pete Wagner's picture

Ancient “elitism” is non-sense.  The ancient peoples could not have constructed those megalith structures via a slave labor system, like we have today.  They would have walked off.  Today, there’s nowhere to walk off to.  The idea that ancient societies were similarly structured is just silly deception by the establishment/fake news cabal.

Nobody gets paid to tell the truth.

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