Pied Piper of Hamelin

The Disturbing True Story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin


When, lo! as they reached the mountain-side, 
A wondrous portal opened wide,
As if a cavern was suddenly hollowed;
And the Piper advanced and the children followed,
And when all were in to the very last,
The door in the mountain-side shut fast.

Robert Browning, The Pied Piper of Hamelin: A Child’s Story

Many are familiar with the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Few realise however, that the story is based on real events, which evolved over the years into a fairy tale made to scare children.

For those unfamiliar with the tale, it is set in 1284 in the town of Hamelin, Lower Saxony, Germany. This town was facing a rat infestation, and a piper, dressed in a coat of many coloured, bright cloth, appeared. This piper promised to get rid of the rats in return for a payment, to which the townspeople agreed too. Although the piper got rid of the rats by leading them away with his music, the people of Hamelin reneged on their promise. The furious piper left, vowing revenge. On the 26 th of July of that same year, the piper returned and led the children away, never to be seen again, just as he did the rats. Nevertheless, one or three children were left behind, depending on which version is being told. One of these children was lame, and could not keep up, another was deaf and could not hear the music, while the third one was blind and could not see where he was going.

The earliest known record of this story is from the town of Hamelin itself depicted in a stained glass window created for the church of Hamelin, which dates to around 1300 AD. Although it was destroyed in 1660, several written accounts have survived. The oldest comes from the Lueneburg manuscript (c 1440 – 50), which stated: “In the year of 1284, on the day of Saints John and Paul on June 26, by a piper, clothed in many kinds of colours, 130 children born in Hamelin were seduced, and lost at the place of execution near the koppen.”

The oldest known picture of the Pied Piper

The oldest known picture of the Pied Piper copied from the glass window of the Market Church in Hameln/Hamelin Germany (c.1300-1633). Image source: Wikimedia.

The supposed street where the children were last seen is today called Bungelosenstrasse (street without drums), as no one is allowed to play music or dance there. Incidentally, it is said that the rats were absent from earlier accounts, and only added to the story around the middle of the 16 th century. Moreover, the stained glass window and other primary written sources do not speak of the plague of rats.

If the children’s disappearance was not an act of revenge, then what was its cause? There have been numerous theories trying to explain what happened to the children of Hamelin. For instance, one theory suggests that the children died of some natural causes, and that the Pied Piper was the personification of Death. By associating the rats with the Black Death , it has been suggested that the children were victims of this plague. Yet, the Black Death was most severe in Europe between 1348 and 1350, more than half a century after the event in Hamelin. Another theory suggests that the children were actually sent away by their parents, due to the extreme poverty that they were living in. Yet another theory speculates that the children were participants of a doomed ‘Children’s Crusade’, and might have ended up in modern day Romania, or that the departure of Hamelin's children is tied to the Ostsiedlung, in which a number of Germans left their homes to colonize Eastern Europe. One of the darker theories even proposes that the Pied Piper was actually a paedophile who crept into the town of Hamelin to abduct children during their sleep.

One of the darker themed representations of the Pied Piper of Hamelin

One of the darker themed representations of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Credit: Lui-Gon-Jinn

Historical records suggest that the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin was a real event that took place. Nevertheless, the transmission of this story undoubtedly evolved and changed over the centuries, although to what extent is unknown, and the mystery of what really happened to those children has never been solved. The story also raises the question, if the Pied Piper of Hamelin was based on reality, how much truth is there in other fairy tales that we were told as children?

Featured image: An illustration of the Pied Piper of Hamelin . Credit: Monlster

By Ḏḥwty


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Philip Olson's picture

I was still in single digits sixty years ago when I first was told the story.  I was fascinated and yearned for more details.

Seems a large part of the fascination was for the brightly colored clothing.  It was rare to have bright primary colors before Rome was founded and even competing textiles were rarely found in the same physical locations.  Loss of technology caused the dark ages, when this story takes place contrasting colors were quite exotic.

One hundred years passing is five generations.  How many personal stories and events from your great great great great great grandparents are still told in your family?  And how accurate are they, considering it was children speaking for their parents at each retelling.


“We do not know,” simple statement of the obvious.  But indeed the admission seems difficult, beyond the ability of some folks to admit.

Speed of dark

Less than 3 days ago I heard from a wise old German lady who is very insightful and very engaged in restoring our world to full health. She just told this story a few days ago, but in it, she mentions that the real Pied Piper was a Devic whom she meets with each June on a marble bench, back to back. He is very angry at our treatment of the world, the animals and eachother. These things really happen and there are real consequences. I sometimes feel as if I am one of those children left behind, to deaf, lame or blind to be led away. 

Were mass disappearances of children reported in other towns of the region and beyond? If not, what was so particular or special regarding Hamelin that suffered this fate, aside from the fairy tale account.

In that time period travelling pipers dressed in colourful outfits and playing musical instruments to get the attention of a crowd to gather were popular. Often they told of far away lands where young folk could travel with them and start a better more prosperous life in a new starting settlement. It is believed the pied piper tale talks of such an incident where Hamelins youth resettled somewhere and never returned  never to be seen again. The story seems to be based on truth however as its earliest known recording is 100 years after the event it has been passed down through verbal stories that can and do easily change over generations. There seems to be nothing mysterious about the tale at all except a longing to explain what happened to a whole lost generation from Hamelin to a new beginning as was popular in those days and the story being added to for story telling. I doubt the children were young children at all but a younger generation and doubt any rats or caves existed in early tellings at all.  Plus like all good stories a lesson has been written and included into the tale.

Mask Off is catchy


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