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Photo of a statue of Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, on display at the Louvre, combined with a 4th-century mosaic depicting gladiators. Source: Public domain

Spartacus: Gladiator and Leader of Slaves Against the Romans – Part 1


The Thracian born Roman gladiator known as Spartacus is now considered the stuff of legend. To this day, books, movies and TV shows have been created to highlight the strength of this heroic rebel slave and the power of a good, common cause. However, historians consistently emphasize the need for caution in evaluating TV's historical interpretations.

In truth, it’s almost impossible to know who Spartacus was in reality, due to the discrepancies and biases of classical authors. What is evident is his profound impact on the future of the Roman government. But, this picture is based on the act of rebellion itself, rather than on the noble intentions for which the media prefer to remember him.

Spartacus began the great slave rebellion in 73 BC. Relief of a barbarian battling a Roman Legionary. (René-Gabriel Ojéda / RMN-Grand Palais-Musée du Louvre)

Spartacus began the great slave rebellion in 73 BC. Relief of a barbarian battling a Roman Legionary. (René-Gabriel Ojéda / RMN-Grand Palais-Musée du Louvre)

Hero, Rebel, Slave or Gladiator: Who Was Spartacus?

Spartacus' story begins in Thrace, a region to the north of Greece, the west of Italy and to the south of the Celtic tribes. Nevertheless, the specifics of his early life remain a subject of debate. Plutarch states that he was of a nomadic tribe, while writer Florus claims he was a mercenary. However, what Plutarch, Florus and a handful of other relatively reliable classical sources agree on is that Spartacus somehow left Thrace and became part of the Roman army.

Whether Spartacus was taken captive and forced into their service or offered himself as a willing volunteer, he served in the legions for an undetermined period until some twist of fate landed him as a prisoner in Capua. It was here that he attended the gladiatorial training school.

It is important to understand that the life of a gladiator was not as remarkable and glamourous as movies would like us to believe. It was not an honor to be a gladiator, as they tended to be either hardened criminals or slaves who had displeased or offended their masters. The training school was rigorous and discipline there was brutal; it was not a place ever willingly attended.

Gladiatorial sport was one of the most common and exciting sporting events of ancient Rome; exciting only for the audience watching the event. The ancient Romans got a thrill from watching criminals meet their demise in real-time. Like our modern day quarterback and starting point guard superstars, there were many specific gladiators people would routinely cheer for, creating their own ancient form of fan clubs.

However, though some gladiators enjoyed their temporary fame, that is all it was—temporary. They were trained in various forms of combat and were pitted against vicious animals, as half the entertainment was seeing how long it took before the gladiator was simply ripped to shreds.

It was expected that the gladiators would die and—in some cases—the games were rigged to ensure it. Gladiators lived the worst and roughest lives, and only some of them truly deserved such a punishment. How Spartacus came to be counted among their ranks is one of the enduring mysteries of his life.

Detail of mosaic depicting gladiators, Villa Borghese. Spartacus is said to have attended gladiatorial training school. (Public domain)

Detail of mosaic depicting gladiators, Villa Borghese. Spartacus is said to have attended gladiatorial training school. (Public domain)

Spartacus and His Famed Rebellion: The Servile Wars

Spartacus survived the gladiatorial lifestyle for an unknown period of time. Eventually because of the severe training routines, the insult of his demotion from Roman soldier and the unfairness of being forced to fend for his life in an animalistic fashion, Spartacus rallied the gladiators to escape the Capua School in 73 BC.

Using predominately kitchen supplies to fight their way out, Spartacus and seventy fellow gladiators pillaged Capua on their way out of the city. Historic accounts claim that they fled to Mount Vesuvius to set up a defensive position.

It is based on his strategic moves that scholars are relatively certain Spartacus had some sort of formal military training. His maneuver to Vesuvius, and the looting of the city Capua, reveals that Spartacus was not merely a slave with a whim. The irony lies in that he had been trained in these maneuvers by the very men he was fleeing: the Roman legions.

Following military example, Spartacus and his fellow slaves created their own form of hierarchy, splitting their group into two factions—one under himself and the other under a Celt called Crixus, or “the one with the curly hair,” his identifying feature in the classical texts.

Though it is uncertain particularly why power was split, it was a clever idea to create a hierarchal regulation of power ensuring every man in Spartacus' and Crixus' armies were of equal status. Without such a regulation, the risk of an internal power struggle would have been threatening.

A bronze gladiator helmet, the type Spartacus would have worn in arenas. (British Museum / CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

A bronze gladiator helmet, the type Spartacus would have worn in arenas. (British Museum / CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

The Romans themselves were unable to stop Spartacus and his men from escaping to Vesuvius. Luck was on the gladiators' sides during the rebellion as many Roman legions were missing in action due to a revolt in Hispania and the Third Mithridatic War in Pontus, the final and longest of the three wars against Mithridates VI of Pontus in Armenia.

However, we can once again cannot overlook Spartacus' military skills as, in the past, the previous two servile uprisings were dealt with as simple policing matters, not war crimes. Spartacus' attempt, however, necessitated the involvement of the remaining Roman legions. This after the failure of Praetor Gaius Claudius Glaber in besieging and starving Spartacus' camp on Vesuvius in 72 BC, and the subsequent massacre of Glaber's forces.

In the same year, the Roman Senate sent two other men—Lucius Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus—to accost Spartacus' and Crixus' factions. While Crixus was defeated, Spartacus took no time in eliminating the Roman generals and their armies.

Although Spartacus and his men were lucky that so many Roman forces were absent in the Republic at the time, Spartacus had made such waves throughout Italy that the Senate was forced to send whichever armies were left after him. Lincinius Crassus, future one-third of the First Triumvirate of Rome, volunteered his services.

Coming next in Part 2: Spartacus – The Last Stand.

Top image: Photo of a statue of Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, on display at the Louvre, combined with a 4th-century mosaic depicting gladiators. Source: Public domain

By Riley Winters


Appian. 1913. “The Civil Wars” in The Histories of Appian. Penelope: University of Chicago. Available at:*.html

Appian. Translated by Horace White. 1912. Roman History, Vol. II, Books 8.12-12. Harvard University Press: Harvard.

Florus. 1947. Epitome of Roman History. London: W. Heinemann.

Fox, R. L. 2006. The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian. New York: Basic Books.

Plutarch. Translated by R. Warner. 1972. Fall of the Roman Republic. London: Penguin Books.

Sallust. Translated by Patrick McGushin. 1994. The histories, Vol.2, Books iii-v. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



AAAAHAHAHAAAAAA... wawww that was realy long - N of Greece, W of Turkey... or totally wrong - W of Italy.... Okok if you want it can be E, N or S of Italy, but it is simple - Trace, the hearth of Trace is in Rodopa mountain in
Bulgaria. And Spartacus was born there.
You are welcome to visit the country and you will see - the most boring ( tourist's ) place is
Varna History museum. You will see some interesting Trackian artefacts there, like the golden treasures, but in Rodopa and Strandja mountains you can learn and see a lot of things about Tracks and Spartacus - theres more knowledge for Spartak, than for a king


Hi All,

Fascinating figure that Spartacus.

Now let me see how about a Show of Hand's in regard to this question who here right now as we settle down and discuss this figure Spartacus in History that History knows very little on.

Show of hands How many here would Like to be Enslaved?

Anybody looking to become a Slave?

The essence of a Slaves Life is One does not have a life. Nothing one values belongs to anyone that's Enslaved.

So pause for a moment and reflect on who here would like to be slaves in The Assyrian Empire, How about during Hammurabi's Reign in Surmaria? Egypt? The Hitties & The Hivites?

The Phoenicians? The Greeks Athens & Sparta? The Roman Period?

How about Slaves to The Huns, The Mongols, The Lombards, The Vikings? I suppose The Crusades & The 14th Century The Middle Ages were a lot better until The Black Death spreads and kills and equal amount of people that Ebola and AIDS Plague at It's Peak.

There was a jealous streak by the nobles when the peasants had no choices but, too serve Them After The Black Death People's lived began to change for The Better.

Would you know the murderous nobles slaughtered the Feudal Peasants for doing better than they placing Them back into Subservient Roles once again.

What of The Age of Columbus & The Conquisatodor's from Spain who'd Want to Be Slaves Then From Africa or Right Here in The United State's.

Then go forth and Be Slaves and Enjoy The Life as Slaves.

I wonder how many would long for a Spartacus? A BraveHeart then? Remember it's all of your lives as a Slave.

This is all I wish to say about Spartacus so until Next Discussion Everyone, Goodbye!

This story of Spartacus is based on a book written by Howard Fast. Another non-Italian. Since we no nothing of Spartacus prior to his escape, the story written by Howard Fast is entirely fictional. If we look deeper, we can see that all the people involved in the creation of this fictional and fabricated movie are from the same *group.*

I think it'd be great to see factual movies regarding the history of the Jews from the beginning to the current time. This should also include a factual recording around Hitler and the Holocaust or "Holohoax" as some independently thinking and seekers of truth see it. Should be written, directed and produced by outside sources. But... then again that may not be necessary as Justice is in the Hands of the Creator.

Ask yourselves for what reason/s history and the truth are manipulated, exaggerated and embellished by others or other groups of people?

Stanley Kubrick isn't Italian, nor is Kirk Douglas or Jean Simmons--- yet they went ahead and "told a tale" of Spartacus. The TV series also did not involve Italians.


Frequently Asked Questions

Spartacus likely lost the war due to a combination of factors including internal divisions, lack of resources, and the strategic and numerical superiority of the Roman legions under Marcus Licinius Crassus.

The precise details of Spartacus's end are unknown, but according to historical accounts, he is believed to have died in battle in 71 BC, and his body was never found.

Some of Spartacus's followers did survive the war; while thousands were crucified along the Appian Way, a few managed to escape the Roman forces.

Riley Winters's picture


Riley Winters is a Pre-PhD art historical, archaeological, and philological researcher who holds a degree in Classical Studies and Art History, and a Medieval and Renaissance Studies minor from Christopher Newport University. She is also a graduate of Celtic and Viking... Read More

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