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A Byzantine ship using Greek fire against an enemy ship. Source: Public Domain

A Blazing Weapon: Unraveling the Mystery of Greek Fire


In the shadowy world of ancient warfare, one weapon stood out as a true marvel: Greek fire. In the 7th century AD, the Byzantine Empire harnessed the power of fire with the creation of Greek fire, a weapon of destruction unlike any before its time. This formidable incendiary weapon was able to fire massive flames in a continuous jet, burning a trail of destruction in its path that was nearly impossible to extinguish. Though the exact recipe for Greek fire remains a mystery to this day, historians believe that they have uncovered some of the fascinating practical ways this mysterious ancient weapon was used. 

Constantinople’s Most Fiery Defense Weapon

Developed by the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century, Greek fire was a true game-changer for Greece when it came to naval warfare. Though the exact origin of Greek fire is unclear, many believe that it was invented by a Syrian engineer named Kallinikos. 

Unfortunately, not much is known about Kallinikos or his life story. However, it is assumed that Kallinikos brought his invention to the Byzantine Emperor sometime during the 7th century, which led to its widespread use for political and military purposes. Those that don’t believe the story of Kallinikos say that the recipe for Greek fire was a heavily-guarded secret passed down through the ranks of Byzantine military leaders and scientists, only to be lost to the sands of time. 

Whatever its origins, the power of Greek fire was undeniable. Records suggest that it contained a potent mix of petroleum, quicklime, and other unknown ingredients. This combination is believed to have made it one of the most flammable and dangerous substances of its time. With this weapon at their disposal, the Byzantines were able to repel enemy invaders from foreign lands, as well as hold their ground during sieges of their capital city, Constantinople.

Despite its eventual decline, the legacy of Greek fire has lived on as a symbol of Byzantine ingenuity and technological prowess. The weapon's impact on the course of history cannot be overstated, as it played a key role in the defense of Constantinople and the preservation of the Byzantine Empire.

Arbalest flamethrower Greek fire, Byzantine Empire (reconstruction). Thessaloniki Technology Museum. (Gts-tg/CC BY-SA 4.0)

Arbalest flamethrower Greek fire, Byzantine Empire (reconstruction). Thessaloniki Technology Museum. (Gts-tg/CC BY-SA 4.0)

A Mysterious, Flammable Brew: Was Sulfur the Secret?

As mentioned previously, the exact composition of Greek fire remains a mystery to this day. Just as secretive as its origins, the recipe for Greek fire was closely guarded and was eventually lost over time. However, there is some speculation regarding the additional chemicals used to produce this infamous weapon.

Some historical sources suggest that the additional chemicals used in Greek fire included saltpeter (potassium nitrate), oil, and sulfur. This would make sense, as sulfur in particular was heavily used by the Greeks for a variety of purposes including fumigation, medicine, and weapon production. Sulfur was also sometimes used throughout Europe to produce pyrotechnics, such as for ancient Roman circuses, so its use in the creation of Greek fire is a strong possibility. 

Other sources mention the use of quicklime, which is a highly reactive form of calcium oxide that can cause spontaneous combustion. The precise combination of these ingredients was said to have made Greek fire highly flammable and difficult to put out once it had caught fire.

Despite the many theories about the composition of Greek fire, the exact recipe remains unknown. Today, Greek fire’s exact properties are a matter of speculation and are considered a heavy debate among historians and scientists.

Greek Fire: Scary to See and to Hear 

Because of its widespread effectiveness, Greek fire was primarily used in naval and siege warfare. In naval battles, it was often used as a flamethrower aimed at enemy ships, setting them on fire with chemical-ridden flames that were nearly impossible to extinguish.

During the Byzantine Empire’s defense of Constantinople against Arab and Persian invaders, the use of Greek fire created a wall of fire around the city that was difficult for the enemy to penetrate. When enemies took to sieges of cities and fortresses, Greek fire was used to defend the walls and attack the enemy. The weapon was particularly useful for defending against enemy soldiers attempting to scale the walls, as it could be aimed at them and set them on fire.

Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, Istanbul. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, Istanbul. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

In addition to this, Greek fire was also used for psychological warfare, as the sight and sound of the weapon alone were intimidating and disheartening to enemy soldiers. Enemies close enough would face the direct wrath of Greek fire, while those farther away would be deterred from even coming closer. 

Greek Fire Lives On… Through the Venetians

The potent weapon had caught the eye of the Venetians, who were intrigued by its terrifying effects. Through trade and military interactions with the Byzantines, the Venetians learned all they could about Greek fire, and they were soon determined to make it their own.

However, the Venetians didn't just copy the Byzantine design. They modified it, creating their version of the weapon to make it even more devastating in naval warfare. They mounted the weapon on their ships, and it became a fearsome sight to behold. The flames of Greek fire would stick to enemy ships, causing chaos and confusion on deck. As the flames spread to other ships, the enemy fleet became a burning, writhing mass of destruction, unable to maneuver or escape.

The Venetians quickly recognized the potential of Greek fire as a game-changer in their ongoing conflicts with the Ottoman Turks. They deployed the weapon in several key naval battles, including the Battle of Andros in 1303 and the Battle of Gallipoli in 1416. The Ottoman navy suffered heavy losses in these engagements, and the Venetians emerged victorious, with Greek fire playing a crucial role.

A Fascinating Glimpse into Ancient Military Technology

Though not everything is known about Greek fire, historians have done an excellent job uncovering some of the most fascinating ways it was used throughout history. One can only imagine how differently history would have panned out if it were not for the intense fiery weapons wielded by the Greeks during ancient times. Despite its eventual decline, the legacy of Greek fire lives on as a symbol of Byzantine ingenuity and technological prowess, and to this day, it remains an important part of military history.

Top image: A Byzantine ship using Greek fire against an enemy ship. Source: Public Domain

By Lex Leigh


Cartwright, M. 2017, November 14. Greek fire. Available at:

Chrysopoulos, P. 2023, January 24. Greek fire: The weapon that protected the Byzantine Empire. Greek Reporter. Available at:

Kuroski, J. 2022. How an ancient incendiary weapon protected the Byzantine Empire for centuries. Available at:

McFadden, C. 2021. Greek fire: The Byzantine Empire's secret weapon of mass destruction. Available at:

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Wilkes, J. 2021. What was greek fire? Available at:



The Byzantine “napalm”.

Pete Wagner's picture

The top portrait (here, if the link works – is probably fraudulent in more ways than one. 

Nobody gets paid to tell the truth.

IronicLyricist's picture

Naphtha and limestone dust

infinitesimal waveparticles comprise what we call home the earth
manipulatable by thought ability supressed in humans since birth

Lex Leigh's picture


Lex Leigh is a former educator with several years of writing experience under her belt. She earned her BS in Microbiology with a minor in Psychology. Soon after this, she earned her MS in Education and worked as a secondary... Read More

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