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Photograph of the assemblage. Credit: Uhlig et al., (2019), photograph by V. Minkus / Antiquity Publications Ltd.

Relics of Fallen Warriors in Germany Reveal Secrets of Bronze Age Battle

Archaeologists in Germany have made an exciting breakthrough regarding a Bronze Age battle , one of the oldest known in Europe. Divers retrieved more than 30 objects from a river, including weapons...
Inscribed stone from a monument at Witzna with scorching dated to 697.      Source: Francisco Estrada-Belli / Nature Magazine

‘Total Maya Warfare’ Happened Much Earlier Than Scientists Believed

Archaeologists studying the fate of the flame engulfed ancient Maya city of Witzna believe that in AD 697 an army of Naranjo ’s, from a kingdom in what is now Guatemala , caused the catastrophic...
he items found on Morgarten plain, possibly from an important 14th century battle.

Do these Weapons Show the True Site of the Battle of Morgarten?

Archaeologists found knives, arrows, a cavalier's spur and silver coins from what may be the site of the important 1315 AD Battle of Morgarten, during which Swiss peasants repelled an attack of...
Knights of the Holy Ghost embarking on the crusades. After a miniature in a manuscript of the XIVth Century in the museum of the Louvre.

The Seven Most Deadly Weapons of the Crusades, or Were There Eight?

By Cam Rea / Classical Wisdom Any weapon can be deadly when properly used, so by no means is this list all inclusive. The timeline of the Crusades spans from 1096 AD to 1272 AD, with the 9th Crusade...
The Great Horned Serpent was powerful and magical in Native American mythology.

Drowning, Poisoning, and the Dark Underworld. Meet the King of all Snakes, the wise Great Horned Serpent in Native American Cosmology

Since longer than history can recall, the western mind has been locked in a pattern of dualistic thinking. In the course of our experiences, the world is defined by a series of opposites, which...
10 Innovative Medieval Weapons: You Would Not Want To Be At The Sharp End Of These!

10 Innovative Medieval Weapons: You Would Not Want To Be At The Sharp End Of These!

Long before modern warfare, there was a time of knights in shining armor atop equally armored horses fighting for the hand of a maiden or in pitched battle. However, the weapons that these knights...
‘Die Amazonenschlacht’ by Anselm Feuerbach, 1873.

Who was the Powerful Amazon Queen Orithyia and What Drove Her to Launch a Fated Attack on Athens?

Orithyia was one of those dangerous women whose beauty was so often described by terrified and excited men that it became legendary. For centuries, the Amazons were believed to be nothing more than a...
Celtic warriors in “The Battle of Telamon, 225 BC.

Fighting in the Buff: Did Celtic Warriors Really Go to War Naked?

The Celts were known in ancient times to have been ferocious warriors. According to certain written sources, some of these Celtic warriors went a step further by going into battle carrying only their...
Catapulta by Edward Poynter

Were Catapults the Secret to Roman Military Success?

The Roman Empire conquered the known world in large part due to its army. The Roman Army was a formidable force of training and discipline led by military minds who established organizational and...
Bones Reveal Gruesome Fate of Scottish Clan Members Who Were Smoked to Death in a Cave

Bones Reveal Gruesome Fate of Scottish Clan Members Who Were Smoked to Death in a Cave

More than 400 years ago, the Macleod clan massacred about 400 of the Macdonalds on the Isle of Eigg in Scotland, when the Macleods smoked them to death in a cave in which they took refuge. Now a...
Alfred the Great. (19th century).

Was Alfred the Great Just a King that was Great at Propaganda?

Stuart Brookes / The Conversation The Last Kingdom – BBC’s historical drama set in the time of Alfred the Great’s war with the Vikings – has returned to our screens for a second series. While most...
Anahita and Ishtar: Connections to the Planet Venus

Anahita and Ishtar: Connections to the Planet Venus

Anahita was a goddess associated with water, fertility, wisdom, warfare, and eventually the planet Venus. During the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia, she became incorporated into the Zoroastrian...
How Ancient Warriors Coped with the Brutality of War

How Ancient Warriors Coped with the Brutality of War

As many as 7% of armed forces personnel suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder and that figure is expected to rise as the full impact of a decade of war in the Middle East makes itself felt. But...
Reenactment of Mongol battle

From Temujin to Genghis Khan: Battling Friends and Enemies in Life of Conquest – Part II

After his young wife, Borte, and family members were kidnapped by a rival clan, Temujin quickly used his new ally, Ong Khan. After entering Ong’s yurt, Temujin said, “We have come to ask you, Qan my...
Genghis Khan

From Temujin to Genghis Khan: Hard Life Leads to Path of Vengeance – Part I

It is obvious that Genghis Khan needs no introduction. Most know who he was. However, it would be unfitting not to provide some details concerning his early life and rise to power. According to the...
A confused naval battle. Two battered ships drift in the foreground while smoke and flame.

The Almighty Hellburners of Antiquity

Hellburners were a type of fire ship best-known to have been used in Europe during the 16th century AD. Whilst hellburners were first used during the early modern period, fire ships were already in...

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