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Left; Napoleon Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, by Jean-Léon Gérôme. Right; Bas-relief of Napoleon Bonaparte Emperor of France in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives. Source: Left; Public domain, Right; Public domain

Two Napoleons: The French Caesars of Modern History

The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, remembered as one of history's greatest conquerors, shares countless parallels with that of Julius Caesar. Fueled by a profound admiration for the classics, Napoleon,...
Representative image of warriors of the Khwarazmian Empire, from a 13th-century Mina’i bowl. Source: Public domain

The Epic Rise and Demise of the Khwarazmian Empire

The Khwarazmian Empire, spanning from the 11th to the 13th centuries, flourished as a formidable power in Central Asia. Situated along the Silk Road, its strategic location fostered vibrant trade and...
Representational image of Ashoka the Great.  Source: Luke/Adobe Stock

Shocked by His Own Brutality, Ashoka Converted to Buddhism

One of the most remarkable transformations in history unfolded during the life of Ashoka the Great, a ruler who transitioned from a brutal conqueror of a vast empire to a benevolent emperor guided by...
Representational image of a Pyrrhic Victory and a bloody battlefield. Source: Mr. Bolota / Adobe Stock

King Pyrrhic’s Costly Conquest that Inspired the Term “Pyrrhic Victory”

The term “Pyrrhic Victory” stands as a testament to the intriguing and often paradoxical nature of warfare. Originating within the victories of the Greek king Pyrrhus of Epirus, this term has found...
A Byzantine ship using Greek fire against an enemy ship. Source: Public Domain

Greek Fire Is Every Sailor's Deadly Nightmare (Video)

Investigating the historical narrative of Greek Fire , the ancient Byzantine weapon emerges as a pivotal element during the Arab siege of Constantinople in 678 AD. In a daring counterattack, the...
The Mesopotamian military represented here used weapons of war to achieve great success. Source: WILD HARE/Adobe Stock

Mesopotamian Military Mastery - The Ancient Reinvention of Warfare

Creating a great empire in ancient times was no simple task, and it usually involved a lot of warfare. Ancient Mesopotamia, called by many the cradle of civilization, was also the cradle of organized...
Prehistoric slingstones used for warfare 7200 years ago in Israel. Source: Emil Aladjem/Israel Antiquities Authority

Evidence of Earliest Warfare and Organized Arming Uncovered in Modern Israel

Researchers have unearthed the earliest evidence of warfare and organized arming in the Southern Levant, dating back approximately 7,200 years. This finding, centered in what is now modern Israel,...
Three stacks of French love letters bound together by a ribbon, were finally opened by Cambridge University professor Renaud Morieux at the national archives, Kew. Source: The National Archives / Renaud Morieux

18th Century Love Letters Written to French Sailors Finally Opened and Read

More than two-and-a-half centuries after they were originally composed, more than 100 letters sent to members of the French navy by their loved ones have finally been opened and read. The messages...
The Sertorian War saw Roman generals and forces clash with the rebel leader Sertorius in a prolonged struggle for control. Source: Hui / Adobe Stock

The Sertorian War: How Rebels Nearly Toppled Rome from Within

Even the greatest of empires and kingdoms can be weakened by internal strife and civil war. The formidable power of Rome was no exception. Throughout its history—from the Republic to the Empire days—...
Experts claim this may be Europe’s oldest artillery cannon found off the coast of Sweden. Source: Bo Niklasson/Bohusläns museum/University of Gothenburg

Europe’s Oldest Artillery Cannon Found Off the Coast of Sweden

A shipboard cannon, found off the west coast of Sweden, may be the oldest piece of artillery ever found in Europe! Discovered in the waters off Marstrand, the cannon has been crafted from cast copper...
Miniature in the 14th century Constantine Manasses Chronicle depicting the Bulgars led by Khan Krum pursuing the Byzantines during the Battle of Versinikia in 813. Source: Public domain

The Rise and Fall of the Mighty Bulgars and the First Bulgarian Empire

In the annals of history, the First Bulgarian Empire emerges as a captivating tale of rise, conquest and eventual decline. Founded by Khan Asparuh in the late 7th century, one of the early leaders of...
: Medieval trebuchet. Source: anibal / Adobe Stock.

Siege and Snipe: The Deadly Impact of Trebuchets and Longbows (Video)

Trebuchets and medieval longbows were both iconic weapons of warfare during the medieval period, each possessing unique characteristics and playing vital roles on the battlefield. Trebuchets were...
The Battle of Actium took place on the 2nd September 31 BC. Painting by Laureys a Castro in 1672. Source: Public domain

Was the Battle of Actium Lost for Cleopatra and Mark Antony Before It Even Started?

The Battle of Actium proved to be a catastrophic blow to the hopes and dreams of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. With unwavering confidence, the renowned duo had nurtured the belief that they were...
A samurai warrior with sword. Source: ImagineDesign / Adobe Stock.

Deadly Weapons of the Ancients: Unleashing History's Fury (Video)

Across the sands of time, the echoes of ancient warfare resound, revealing a captivating glimpse into the evolution of human conflict. In the realm of battle, the ingenuity of our ancestors gave...
Section of the impressive walls of Dubrovnik. Source: Siegfried Schnepf / Adobe Stock

The Unbreakable Barrier: Dubrovnik's Walls Through the Ages

Nestled along the rugged Adriatic coast, the walled city of Dubrovnik in Croatia has long been a cultural and economic hub in the region. However, this picturesque city has also seen its fair share...
Medieval knight in a winter blizzard. Source: brunogm / Adobe Stock.

Chilling battles: How Medieval Knights Fought in the Freezing Cold (Video)

The clanking of metal and the sight of knights riding on horseback with their full suits of armor is a familiar image from medieval times. But what was it really like to wear such heavy and bulky...
An assassin holding a falchion sword. Source: jaysen / Adobe Stock.

Blood on the Blade: The Deadly Efficiency of the Falchion (Video)

In the realm of medieval weaponry, few weapons were as brutally efficient as the falchion . A curved sword with a wide blade that tapered towards the tip, the falchion was designed to deliver maximum...
With the death of Cleopatra, the Hellenistic period was officially over. (Public domain)

Alexander's Legacy: The Hellenistic Period and the Dawn of a New Era

The Hellenistic period was a time of great change and excitement in the ancient world. Spanning from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC, this era saw...
The trebuchet at Warwick Castle. Source: Muna/ Carpenter Oak

Trebuchet Dubbed ‘Britain's Biggest Siege Machine’ Takes Center Stage at Warwick Castle

At the famous Warwick Castle in Warwickshire, England, visitors will soon have the opportunity to see a gigantic medieval war weapon in action. This elaborate wooden contraption is a catapult-style...
Siege weapon in action. Source: Smulsky / Adobe Stock.

15 of Ancient History’s Most Ingenious Siege Weapons (Video)

Warfare has been a constant throughout human history, and with it, the development of increasingly sophisticated weaponry to overcome defensive fortifications. The ancient world was no exception, and...
Recreation of the Trojan War. Source: Justinas / Adobe Stock

15 of the Biggest Battles of Ancient History (Video)

Warfare has unfortunately been a recurring part of human history, with conflicts arising from territorial disputes, cultural differences, and the drive for power. While the 20th century saw several...
A Byzantine ship using Greek fire against an enemy ship. Source: Public Domain

A Blazing Weapon: Unraveling the Mystery of Greek Fire

In the shadowy world of ancient warfare, one weapon stood out as a true marvel: Greek fire. In the 7th century AD, the Byzantine Empire harnessed the power of fire with the creation of Greek fire, a...
Ancient warfare tactics were no less brutal than today’s and some were quite innovative. Source: Arhun / Adobe Stock

6 Shockingly Successful Ancient Warfare Tactics

As long as humans have walked the Earth, they’ve been finding reasons to kill each other. Over time, we’ve gotten pretty good at it. It should come as no surprise then that over the years armies have...
View of the Turtle Ship at Hallyeo National Marine Park in Tongyeong, South Korea. Source: CC BY-SA 3.0

The Turtle Ship: A Contender for the World’s First Armored Battleship

As a species, humanity has always been shockingly gifted at finding new ways to kill one another. As wars have raged over the millennia, armaments have had to evolve. This has led to some genuinely...

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