All  

Iraq Banner Desktop

Store Banner Mobile

Mesopotamian Figures

Welcome to our captivating exploration of Mesopotamian figures, where we shine a light on the remarkable individuals who left an indelible mark on the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia, often referred to as the "Cradle of Civilization," was home to a rich tapestry of cultures, city-states, and empires that flourished between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

In this section of our website, we invite you to delve into the lives and legacies of the influential figures who shaped the course of Mesopotamian history. From legendary rulers and wise scribes to accomplished priests and revered goddesses, these individuals embody the spirit and diversity of this ancient land.

AI image of Mesopotamian Empire. Source: Rick/Adobe Stock

The Civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia Explained (Video)

Ancient Mesopotamia , often referred to as the cradle of civilization, witnessed the flourishing of several remarkable cultures, including the Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, and Babylonians. The...
Eve tempted by the serpent in a paradise illustrated according to the texts of the Bible. An image showing good and evil in one scene.

Lilith: Ancient Demon, Dark Deity or Sensual Goddess?

Lilith, an ancient mythological figure and one of the oldest known female spirits in the world, has embodied various roles across cultures. In some sources she has been described as a demon, while in...
Sumerian priestess. Source: Oleksandr / Adobe Stock.

Sumerian King Iddin-Dagan Copulated with a Priestess in a Public Annual Ritual

In the annals of history, we have witnessed a myriad of unique, and at times, bizarre traditions that have defined civilizations and their leaders. One such tradition that stands tall in its peculiar...
Votive stele of Gudea, ruler of Lagash, to the temple of Ningirsu. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul. Source: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP (Glasg)/CC BY-SA 4.0)

The Rule of Ensi Gudea and the Golden Age of Lagash

Ancient Mesopotamia, called by many the “cradle of civilization”, is in many ways enigmatic and mysterious. There is plenty about it that we are still to uncover, as it reaches so far back in time...
The Taylor Prism was discovered in 1830 at Nineveh and is currently housed at the British Museum in London. It tells the story of King Sennacherib’s third campaign and his conquests in Judah. Source: Public domain

Sennacherib's Prisms Reveal the Glorious Reign of an Assyrian King

Imagine if all of the world’s ancient cultures and civilizations had had well-developed writing systems. Then envision the marvels we would know about today, the hidden secrets and remarkable tales...
Zerzevan Castle, Turkey. Source: Ayse / Adobe Stock.

Massive Multi-Storey Structures Found Below Ancient Castle in Turkey

Archaeologists have uncovered vast structures beneath the ancient Zerzevan Castle in Turkey's southeastern Diyarbakir province, revealing startling remnants from the Roman era. These expansive, multi...
The clay brick from the National Museum of Denmark and from which scientists have extracted ancient plant DNA. Source: Arnold Mikkelsen og Jens Lauridsen

Ancient Plant DNA Extracted from 2,900-Year-Old Assyrian Brick

DNA testing in an archaeological context has been improving by leaps and bounds, resulting in many new discoveries relating to ancient human, animal and plant genetics. New ground in DNA analysis of...
Representational image of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Source: Creative Digital Art / Adobe Stock

Searching for the Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The real location of the elusive Hanging Gardens of Babylon has eluded researchers for centuries. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World whose location is still unknown, yet...
Sumerian chaos monster and sun god. Source: Public Domain

The Origins of Human Beings According to Ancient Sumerian Texts

Sumer , or the ‘land of civilized kings’, flourished in Mesopotamia , now modern-day Iraq, around 4500 BC. Sumerians created an advanced civilization with its own system of elaborate language and...
pper part of a gypsum statue of a Sumerian woman. The hands are folds in worship.

Nammu: A Forgotten Tale of the Sumerian Mother of Gods

Nammu was the primeval Sumerian mother goddess who gave birth to the gods and created humanity. Despite her extremely important role, much of her story is wrapped in mystery. Some information can be...
The Nephilim Tradition From Ancient Sumer

The Nephilim Tradition From Ancient Sumer

The oldest literary tradition about great heroic kings claiming to have been scions of the gods dates back to the Sumerian King List in which the First Dynasty of Uruk is described as having been...
The Secret Strategic Plans of Darius the Great

The Secret Strategic Plans of Darius the Great

To the north of the Persian Empire, around both sides of Caucasus Mountain, various Scythian (Palaeo-Slavian / Staroslavianskje) tribes lived. They were nomadic, i.e. not yet permanently settled in...
The Legend of Lugalbanda, The First Sumerian Shaman

The Legend of Lugalbanda, The First Sumerian Shaman

According to the Sumerian King List , Lugalbanda was one of the kings who belonged to the First Dynasty of Uruk in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia. What is particularly striking about Lugalbanda is the...
Royal Bonds: How the Mother, Wife, and Daughter of Darius III Became Family of Alexander the Great

Royal Bonds: How the Mother, Wife, and Daughter of Darius III Became Family of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great abruptly ended the reign of Darius III, and with it he saw the demise of the Achaemenid kings. However, while conquering new lands Alexander gained not only territory, but also...
The Nurturing Goddess Ninsun: Worshipped by Ancient Mesopotamians and the Mother of Gilgamesh

The Nurturing Goddess Ninsun: Worshipped by Ancient Mesopotamians and the Mother of Gilgamesh

Ninsun is a female figure found in Sumerian mythology. She is a goddess whose parents are the deities Anu (the sky god) and Uras (a goddess of the earth). As a goddess, Ninsun was worshipped by the...
Cyrus the Great. Source: armin dara / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Cyrus the Great – Conqueror or Uber Human Rights Activist?

Cyrus II of Persia (more commonly known as Cyrus the Great and called Cyrus the Elder by the ancient Greeks) was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Although there are various ancient sources for...
The Epic of Gilgamesh. Source: Luca Oleastri / Adobe.

The Epic of Gilgamesh Unveiled: Searching For a Way to the Home Planet

The Epic of Gilgamesh is regarded as one of mankind’s greatest literary and historical works. Many authors have studied the text in an effort to explain the nature of Gilgamesh’s tyranny and his...
The Persian Empire used a satrapal system for local rulers. Source: Konstantin / Adobe Stock

Satraps of the Persian Empire – Rebellious Protectors of the Realm

The Achaemenid Empire was an ancient empire whose heartland was the region of Persis , in the southwestern part of modern-day Iran. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenids ruled over an empire that...
Queen Kubaba relief in the form of a goddess. Source: Left; Public Domain Right; CC BY-SA 2.0 FR

The King List and Queen Kubaba: The First Recorded Queen of the Ancient World

From Cleopatra to Razia Sultan, history is filled with powerful women who defied the norms of their time. But have you ever heard of Queen Kubaba? Reigning over Sumer around 2,500 BC, she might just...
Hunting the Lions: The Last King of Assyria, and the Death of the Empire – Part II

Hunting the Lions: The Last King of Assyria, and the Death of the Empire – Part II

The Assyrian empire, with the death of King Ashurbanipal, was collapsing under the weight of politics and war. Kingdoms and leaders previously held in Assyria’s great grasp fell upon the vulnerable...
Xerxes

Xerxes The Great: The Powerful Persian King Whose Death Destroyed an Empire

Xerxes I, also known as Xerxes the Great, was a 5th century Achaemenid king of the Persian empire. He is best known for leading the massive invasion of Greece, marked by the battles of Thermopylae,...
Sumerian Etana Translated As Biblical Enoch

Sumerian Etana Translated As Biblical Enoch

The Biblical Enoch corresponds to a remarkable degree with the figure of Etana in Sumerian tradition. It seems reasonable to assume that they belong to the same original tradition handed down in the...
The Tower of Babel. Source: Александр Михальчук / CC BY-SA 4.0

Gateway to the Heavens: The Assyrian Account of the Tower of Babel

The story of the fabled Tower of Babel from the Book of Genesis has come to inspire artists throughout history and to symbolize the idea of human ambition. Once a real-life ziggurat at the center of...
Shahnameh (Book of Kings) Abu'l Qasim Firdausi (935–1020).

The Early Rulers of Persia, Part II: The Kayanian Dynasty

( Read Part I ) According to Persian epic tradition, the Kayanians were the second dynasty to rule the land which is known today as Iran. The Kayanians succeeded the Pishdadians, whose dynasty ended...

Pages