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Sumer was an ancient civilization that existed in the southern part of Mesopotamia (modern-day southern Iraq) around 4,500 to 1,900 BC. It was one of the earliest civilizations in human history and made significant contributions to various aspects of human culture and civilization. Here are some of the main events and leaders associated with Sumer:


  1. Emergence of City-States: Sumer saw the rise of independent city-states, each with its own government and ruler. These city-states included Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Nippur, Kish, and others.
  2. Invention of Writing: Sumerians developed one of the earliest known writing systems called cuneiform. This development revolutionized communication, trade, and record-keeping.
  3. Construction of Ziggurats: Ziggurats were monumental structures built as temples in Sumer. These stepped pyramids were religious centers and served as a connection between the human and divine realms.
  4. Epic of Gilgamesh: The Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient literary work, originates from Sumer. It is considered one of the earliest surviving works of literature and provides insights into Sumerian mythology and culture.
  5. Code of Ur-Nammu: The Code of Ur-Nammu is one of the oldest known legal codes, dating back to the 21st century BC. It served as a legal framework for Sumerian society, providing guidelines for various aspects of life, including family, property, and commerce.


  1. Gilgamesh: A legendary figure in Sumerian mythology, Gilgamesh is believed to have been the fifth king of Uruk. He is the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which recounts his heroic adventures and his quest for immortality.
  2. Enmebaragesi: He was a Sumerian king who ruled over Kish in the early 25th century BC. Enmebaragesi is considered one of the earliest rulers of Sumer, and his reign marked a period of growth and prosperity.
  3. Ur-Nammu: Ur-Nammu was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur and the king of Ur in the 21st century BC. He is known for his legal code, the Code of Ur-Nammu, which provided a comprehensive set of laws for Sumerian society.
  4. Enheduanna: Enheduanna was a high priestess and poet in Sumer. She is considered the earliest known author in history, and her hymns and poems dedicated to the goddess Inanna are some of the earliest surviving literary works by a named author.
  5. Gudea: Gudea was a ruler of the city-state of Lagash in the 22nd century BC. He is known for his extensive building projects, including the construction and restoration of temples, and for his patronage of the arts.

These are just a few examples of the main events and leaders from Sumer. Discover more of the details of these important themes below.