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The skull of Paranthropus boisei, known as KNM ER 406, photographed at the Nairobi National Museum in August 2012.                    Source: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen/CC BY-SA 3.0

Paranthropus-Our Most Mysterious Extinct Cousins (Video)

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In the tapestry of human evolution, the enigmatic Paranthropus emerges as a parallel cousin to our Homo ancestors. Discovered in South and East Africa in the late 1930s, these hominins, including species like Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei, present a perplexing narrative.

Initially thought to be niche specialists with a penchant for hard foods, recent studies reveal a more complex dietary story. Microwear patterns on their teeth and chemical analyses suggest varied diets, challenging the notion of uniformity within the Paranthropus genus.

The coexistence of stone tools and Paranthropus remains at certain sites sparks debates about tool usage among these hominins. However, the scarcity of fossils beyond skulls and teeth leaves gaps in our understanding of their complete behaviors and lifestyles.

Around 1 million years ago, while our Homo ancestors endured, Paranthropus faced extinction. A 2023 study suggests that their specialized niches made them vulnerable to environmental shifts during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition.

As habitat specialists, they struggled when faced with changes, unlike the more adaptable Homo. The intertwined paths of Homo and Paranthropus prompt reflection on the role of luck in shaping our evolutionary trajectory. In this complex dance of time, the extinction of Paranthropus remains a puzzle, emphasizing the unpredictable nature of evolution.

Top image: The skull of Paranthropus boisei, known as KNM ER 406, photographed at the Nairobi National Museum in August 2012.                    Source: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen/CC BY-SA 3.0

By Robbie Mitchell

 
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Robbie

I’m a graduate of History and Literature from The University of Manchester in England and a total history geek. Since a young age, I’ve been obsessed with history. The weirder the better. I spend my days working as a freelance... Read More

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