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All the latest news on finds, advancements, and research in archaeology and ancient history, from the No 1 Ancient History website in the world

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Letter of marque given to Captain Antoine Bollo via the shipowner Dominique Malina from Genoa, owner of the Furet, a 15-tonne privateer, 27 February 1809. (Right) Drake viewing treasure taken from a Spanish ship, print courtesy New York Public Library. Source: Public Domain; New York Public Library/CC BY 3.0

The Enigmatic Letter of Marque: Legal Piracy Revealed (Video)

Privateering , often glamorized in tales of the high seas, was far more complex than popular narratives suggest. At its heart lay the elusive "Letter of Marque," a document laden with opportunity and...
AI generated image representative of Alba Longa, legendary ancient Roman city.	Source: LukaszDesign/Adobe Stock

Alba Longa and its Legendary Kings

Alba Longa, an ancient city located in the Latium region of Italy, holds a prominent place in the realm of myth and legend. According to tradition, this fabled city's origins can be traced back to...
Posthumous portrait of King Edward IV from original circa 1470-1475. Source: Public Domain

A Brief History of Edward IV of England, The First Yorkist King

Governing a great and powerful realm is certainly no easy task, especially a kingdom that was as powerful as medieval England. The Kings of England were amongst the most powerful men of that time,...
No Ziggy? The Inca City at the Martian Pole surrounded by thousands of spiders from Mars, here seen as tiny dark spots. Source: European Space Agency / CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Spiders From Mars? Strange Formations Spotted at Martian Pole

ESA's Mars Express has captured images revealing distinctive formations dubbed "spiders" dispersed across the southern polar region of Mars. These features are caused by a fascinating interplay of...
AI illustration symbolic of the British monarchy. Source: Julia Zarubina/Adobe Stock

The British Monarchy: An Authority That Endures Over Time (Video)

The British monarchy boasts an impressive lineage spanning over 1200 years, making it one of the oldest in the world. Through centuries marked by uprisings, revolutions, and global conflicts, its...
Photo showing a portion of the ‘Treasure of Priam’. Source: Public Domain, I, Sailko/CC BY-SA 3.0, I, Sailko/CC BY-SA 3.0, I, Sailko/CC BY-SA 3.0

The Treasures of Priam: Golden Riches from the Legendary City of Troy

Homer’s Iliad is often considered as one of the greatest works of Western literature. For many centuries, Homer’s Troy, the city besieged by the Greeks, was considered to be a myth by scholars...
Ruins in the ancient city of Sirkap, Taxila, Pakistan. Source: NG-Spacetime / Adobe Stock

A Rich Fusion of Greek and Indian: The Ancient Ruins of Sirkap

When Alexander the Great invaded the Far East, his armies were awed by the strange cultures, exotic animals, and unknown religions of India. Alexander promoted a fusion of cultures and his successors...
A new study believes that uranium may be behind the curse of the pharaohs. Source: Shutter2U / Adobe Stock

There WAS a Curse! Was Deadly Radiation Behind the Curse of the Pharaohs?

When Howard Carter broke into the tomb of King Tutankhamun in 1922, the treasures he found in the sealed chambers were not the only thing on his mind. He also feared a curse, the legendary curse of...
Al generated art of Cleopatra's speech to the crowd at sunset with the pyramids of Giza in the background in Egypt. Source: unai/Adobe Stock

What Type of Leader Was Cleopatra? (Video)

Cleopatra , renowned as Cleopatra VII, wielded leadership that transcended mere governance, embodying a blend of intellect, charisma, and strategic prowess. Born in 69 BC into the Ptolemaic dynasty...
AI image of Arab warrior assassin rushing through the desert with two curved sabers with which magical Arabian runes. Source: warmtail/Adobe Stock

How Arabian Script Infiltrated the Runes of Ancient Germany

Arabian archers in the Roman army had a surprising impact on the evolution of writing in ancient Germany at the dawn of our Common Era (AD). The old Germanic alphabet, known as runes – bolstered with...
AI image of a painting, showing a Pagan Christmas card of Holly King and Winter Goddess. Source: Kelly Cree/Adobe Stock

Modern Activities That Can Be Traced Back to Pagan Culture (Video)

A search for hidden pagan influence on our daily activities reveals a mix of modern traditions and customs deeply rooted in ancient belief systems. Emerging from the early Christian era, the term "...
Left; Charles Darwin, Right; Tucker Carlson.	Source: Left; Julius Jääskeläinen/CC BY 2.0 Right; Gage Skidmore/CC BY-SA 2-0

Does Tucker Carlson Have A Point About the Theory of Evolution?

In a recent episode of "The Joe Rogan Experience," Tucker Carlson made controversial statements regarding Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, suggesting that there is "no evidence" to support the...
Representational image of the allure of incredible ancient texts. Source: Sodapeaw / Adobe Stock

Ten Extraordinary Ancient Texts That Exploded Our Ancient Knowledge

There are literally thousands of incredible texts that have survived from the ancient world, which are etched onto copper, beautifully inscribed on papyrus, chipped onto tablets, and even written...
Prehistoric Irish monuments of Late Bronze Age stone circle at Boleycarrigeen, with Keadeen cursus near the summit of the mountain in the background        Source: J. O’Driscoll/Antiquity

Prehistoric Irish Monuments Revealed As ‘Pathways for the Dead’

Archaeologists using advanced LiDAR technology have unearthed a significant discovery at Baltinglass in County Wicklow, Ireland, known as the "Hillfort Capital" of the region. This cutting-edge...
Burial with a horse at the Rákóczifalva site, Hungary (8th century AD). This male individual of the culture of the Avars, belongs to the 2nd generation of pedigree 4, and was one of the sons of the founder of this kinship unit. Source: Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary/Nature

DNA Study Reveals Cultural Truths About Avar Warriors

Based on the analysis of several hundred skeletons, a new genetic study revealed fascinating new information about how the society of the Avars was organized. These formerly nomadic migrants...
Invading Norwegian force led by Viking King Harald Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.	Source: Public Domain

Unveiling the True Story of the Vikings (Video)

Beyond their depiction as mere raiders, the Vikings emerged as a multifaceted society encompassing various facets of life. From around 790 AD to 1066 AD, they thrived in an era marked by remarkable...
The unique sword found in Valencia in 1994 dates back 1,000 years.	Source: SERVICI D’ARQUEOLOGIA DE L’AJUNTAMENT DE VALÈNCIA SIAM

Unique ‘Excalibur’ Sword Unearthed in Spain Holds Islamic Origins

Researchers have finally unveiled the age-old mysteries surrounding a historic Islamic sword dubbed “Excalibur”, due to its position when found evoking parallels to the legendary sword of King Arthur...
London symbols of British culture with Big Ben, a double-decker bus and Red Phone Booths. Source: Tomas Marek/ Adobe Stock

Britain's “Britishness” is Largely an Import Story

Britain's history is a vibrant tapestry woven with threads of diverse cultures, a reality seemingly overlooked by some nationalist standpoints. Contrary to the cosmopolitan makeup of the country,...
Interior of Basilica of San Vitale, which has important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture. Ravenna, Emilia Romagna, Italy. Source: Salvatore Leanza /Adobe Stock

Early Christian Schisms and the History of the Modern Church (Video)

The history of Christianity is a tapestry woven with diverse threads of belief, shaped by centuries of theological debates and regional schisms. From its humble beginnings in Jerusalem, Christianity...
10 amazing artifacts of the ancient world. 	Source: National Museum of Denmark, Public Domain, University of Birmingham, The James ossuary was on display at the Royal Ontario Museum from November 15, 2002, to January 5, 2003/CC0, Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP / CC BY-SA 4.0

Ten Amazing Artifacts Reveal the Secrets of the Ancient World

There are undoubtedly millions of amazing artifacts from the ancient world that have served to shed light on the lives of our ancestors from many millennia ago. But some stand out for their...
Detail of the Great Cameo of France depicting emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and their family. Source: Marie-Lan Nguyen / CC BY 2.5

Dawn of the Roman Empire: The Julio-Claudians

When the citizens of Rome ousted their last king in 509 BC, power was divided between the magistrates, the Senate, and the assemblies of the people. This partition of authority, which characterized...
The Crowning with Thorns (c. 1603) by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610).  Kunsthistorisches Museum (Art History Museum) in Vienna. Source: Adam Ján Figeľ/Adobe/Stock

Caravaggio, The Artist Who Died For His Art (Video)

Caravaggio, the charismatic artist of the Baroque era, left an undeniable mark on the art world with his revolutionary chiaroscuro technique, which brought an unparalleled depth and drama to his...
Close up of the prehistoric jawbone containing hominin teeth in the tile, as posted on Reddit.	Source: Kidipadeli75/Reddit

Dentist Finds Prehistoric Hominin Jawbone in Bathroom Tile!

During a visit to his parents' recently renovated European home, a man made an unexpected discovery within one of the floor tiles. Upon closer examination, he identified the object as part of a...
The ancient Mesoamerican board game ‘Patolli’ board from Ancient Origins. Source: Ancient Origins

Reviving Patolli: The Ancient Mesoamerican Game of Strategy and Fortune

Patolli, an ancient game of strategy and chance, once captivated the minds and hearts of Mesoamerica. It is one of the oldest games known in the Americas, with evidence for it being found in cultures...

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