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A Neanderthal skull shows head trauma, evidence of ancient violence. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Were Other Humans the First Victims of the Sixth Mass Extinction?

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Nick Longrich / The Conversation

300,000 years ago, nine human species walked the Earth. Now there’s just one. The Neanderthals,  Homo neanderthalensis , were  stocky hunters  adapted to Europe’s cold steppes. The related  Denisovans inhabited Asia, while the more primitive  Homo erectus  lived in Indonesia, and  Homo rhodesiensis  in central Africa.

Several short, small-brained species survived alongside them:  Homo naledi  in South Africa,  Homo luzonensis  in the Philippines,  Homo floresiensis  (“hobbits”) in Indonesia, and the mysterious  Red Deer Cave People  in China. Given how quickly we’re discovering new species, more are likely waiting to be found.

Now, they’re gone. The disappearance of these other species resembles a mass extinction. But there’s no obvious environmental catastrophe – volcanic eruptions, climate change, asteroid impact – driving it. Instead, the extinctions’ timing suggests they were caused by the spread of a new species, evolving  260,000-350,000 years ago  in Southern Africa Homo sapiens .

The spread of modern humans out of Africa has caused a  sixth mass extinction , a greater than 40,000-year event extending from the disappearance of Ice Age mammals to the destruction of rainforests by civilization today. But were other humans the first casualties?

Human evolution. Nick Longrich (Author Provided)

Human evolution. Nick Longrich (Author Provided)

We are a uniquely dangerous species. We hunted  wooly mammoths, ground sloths  and moas to extinction. We destroyed plains and forests for farming, modifying over half the planet’s land area. We altered the planet’s climate. But we are most dangerous to other human populations, because we compete for resources and land.

History is full of examples of people warring, displacing and wiping out other groups over territory, from Rome’s destruction of Carthage, to the American conquest of the West and the British colonization of Australia. There have also been recent genocides and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, Rwanda,  Iraq, Darfur and  Myanmar. Like language or tool use, a capacity for and tendency to engage in genocide is arguably an intrinsic, instinctive part of human nature. There’s little reason to think that early  Homo sapiens  were less territorial, less violent, less intolerant – less human.

Optimists have painted early hunter-gatherers as peaceful, noble savages, and have argued that our culture, not our nature, creates violence. But field studies, historical accounts, and archaeology all show that war in  primitive cultures was intense, pervasive and lethal . Neolithic weapons such as clubs, spears, axes and bows, combined with guerrilla tactics like raids and ambushes, were devastatingly effective. Violence was the leading cause of death among men in these societies, and wars saw higher casualty levels per person than World Wars I and II.

Old bones and artifacts show this violence is ancient. The 9,000-year-old Kennewick Man , from North America, has a spear point embedded in his pelvis. The 10,000-year-old  Nataruk site  in Kenya documents the brutal massacre of at least 27 men, women, and children.

It’s unlikely that the other human species were much more peaceful. The existence of  cooperative violence in male chimps  suggests that war predates the evolution of humans. Neanderthal skeletons show  patterns of trauma consistent with warfare. But sophisticated weapons likely gave  Homo sapiens  a military  advantage. The arsenal of early  Homo sapiens  probably included  projectile weapons  like javelins and  spear-throwers, throwing sticks and  clubs.

Complex tools and culture would also have helped us efficiently harvest a wider range of animals and plants, feeding larger tribes, and giving our species a strategic advantage in numbers.

The ultimate weapon

But cave  paintingscarvings, and  musical instruments  hint at something far more dangerous: a sophisticated capacity for abstract thought and communication. The ability to cooperate, plan, strategise, manipulate and deceive may have been our ultimate weapon.

The incompleteness of the fossil record makes it hard to test these ideas. But in Europe, the only place with a relatively complete archaeological record, fossils show that within  a few thousand years  of our arrival , Neanderthals vanished. Traces of  Neanderthal DNA in some Eurasian people  prove we didn’t just replace them after they went extinct. We met, and we mated.

Elsewhere, DNA tells of other encounters with archaic humans. East Asian, Polynesian and Australian groups have  DNA from Denisovans. DNA from another species, possibly  Homo erectus , occurs in many Asian people. African genomes  show traces of DNA  from yet another  archaic species . The fact that we interbred with these other species proves that they disappeared only after encountering us.

But why would our ancestors wipe out their relatives, causing a mass extinction – or, perhaps more accurately, a mass genocide?

13,000-year-old spear points from Colorado. Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution (Author Provided)

13,000-year-old spear points from Colorado. Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution (Author Provided)

The answer lies in population growth. Humans reproduce exponentially, like all species. Unchecked, we historically doubled our numbers every 25 years. And once humans became cooperative hunters, we had no predators. Without predation controlling our numbers, and little family planning beyond  delayed marriage  and infanticide, populations grew to exploit the available resources.

Further growth, or food shortages caused by drought, harsh winters or overharvesting resources  would inevitably lead tribes into conflict  over food and foraging territory. Warfare became a check on population growth, perhaps the most important one.

Our elimination of other species probably wasn’t a planned , coordinated effort of the sort practiced by civilizations, but a war of attrition. The end result, however, was just as final. Raid by raid, ambush by ambush, valley by valley, modern humans would have worn down their enemies and taken their land.

Yet the extinction of Neanderthals, at least, took a long time – thousands of years. This was partly because early  Homo sapiens  lacked the advantages of later conquering civilizations: large numbers, supported by farming, and epidemic diseases like smallpox, flu, and measles that devastated their opponents. But while Neanderthals lost the war, to hold on so long they must have fought and won many battles against us, suggesting a level of intelligence close to our own.

Today we look up at the stars and wonder if we’re alone in the universe. In fantasy and science fiction, we wonder what it might be like to meet other intelligent species, like us, but not us. It’s profoundly sad to think that we once did, and now, because of it, they’re gone.

Top image: A Neanderthal skull shows head trauma, evidence of ancient violence.  Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

The article “ Were other humans the first victims of the sixth mass extinction? ” by Nick Longrich was originally published on The Conversation and has been republished under a Creative Commons license.

Comments

They will do it again today if we keep feeding them. I'm not saying we shouldn't feed Africa but they are multiplying so quickly, it seems like an impossible problem.

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