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The Strange Story of the Black Prince of Canterbury

The Strange Story of the Black Prince of Canterbury

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Visitors can find the tomb of Edward of Woodstock, also known as the Black Prince, in the famous Canterbury cathedral. The 14th Century prince was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, but some may question why he’s laid to rest in such an important place. His biography isn't impressive, but his tombstone with a sculpture of his deceased body accompanied by a strange epitaph made him famous. Who was Edward of Woodstock and why is he known as the Black Prince?

Edward on the Battlefield

The main reason why Edward became famous was that he was the first English Prince of Wales who didn't become a King of England. His father died a year after him, so the throne went to Richard II.

A depiction of Edward, the Black Prince, made circa 1430-1440. ( Public Domain )

For all of Edward’s life he was in the army. When he reached adulthood he was a charismatic and strong military leader whose victories over the French during the battle of Poitiers and Crecy made him a national hero for some time. However, he was just one of many strong army leaders. He was probably a typical Duke and a leader without a crown. He is also believed to have suffered from amoebic dysentery, which influenced his hot-tempered personality.

The most common reason that is given to explain why Edward is known as the Black Prince is due to his cruelty against the French and the rest of his enemies. His life was full of blood and wars. He had no mercy toward his enemies and due to this he became an iconic character. Although cruel, after the capture of King John the Good, he treated him with the respect he deserved as a king. However, he used aggressive methods against his non-royal enemies.

Edward, the Black Prince, is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III.

Edward, the Black Prince, is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III. ( Public Domain )

Edward was married to his cousin, Joan, but he also had many illegitimate children who were born before his marriage. His mistress Edith of Willesford gave him one of his beloved sons – Roger Clarendon (1352-1402). Unknown women also gave birth to his sons Edward, John, and Charles. With his wife Joan he had two sons: Edward and Richard. Both of the boys were born in France, where Edward and Joan had taken up duties as the rulers of Aquitaine.

 [left] Edward of Angouleme and Joan of Kent [right] Richard of Bordeaux

[left] Edward of Angouleme and Joan of Kent ( Public Domain ) [right] Richard of Bordeaux ( Public Domain )

The Black Prince’s Fame After Death

Edward died at age 45 due to dysentery and other diseases which were caused by a weak immune system. Some possible illnesses he may have suffered from were nephritis, cirrhosis, and edema. It is also very likely that he had problematic wounds which he got on the battlefield. Due to his poor health condition, doctors suggested he return to England. He may have gone back to his homeland a few months before his death.

Edward spent the last days of his life at Westminster Palace and according to his last wishes, he was buried in the Canterbury crypt . The chapel was also prepared for his wife Joan, Countess of Kent, who joined him many years later. The tomb was decorated with a bronze sculpture representing Edward. His life was summarized by the epitaph on his tomb, which he had stated in his will:

''Such as thou art, sometime was I.
Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I thought little on th'our of Death
So long as I enjoyed breath.
On earth I had great riches
Land, houses, great treasure, horses, money and gold.
But now a wretched captive am I,
Deep in the ground, lo here I lie.
My beauty great, is all quite gone,
My flesh is wasted to the bone''

This tombstone, which was restored in 2006, brought Edward more fame than was expected. He became more popular to the visitors of the church than to historians. The Black Prince’s legend grew from his death and burial.

Other Explanations Why Edward was the Black Prince

The Black Prince was almost forgotten until the 17th century. In the 1640s, the cathedral with the tomb of the Black Prince was attacked by Cromwell’s army . The stained glass windows which overlook the tomb of the Black Prince were destroyed and allowed the sun to distort the magnificent medieval work.

The paintwork of the 14th century was damaged and the colors of the bronze figure of the prince turned black. Could this be the real reason why Edward has been called the Black Prince? Perhaps it had nothing to do with his personality and cruel nature at all, as this was nothing unusual for the time. Another theory says that his nickname was due to the fact that he had a black breastplate to celebrate his courage in battle.

The tomb of the Black Prince became one of the most popular attractions of the church. He also became an inspiration for the French TV series ''Thierry la Frode”, which was filmed between 1963 and 1966. The plot of the series talks about a young man who fights against the Black Prince.

Tomb of the Black Prince. (Peter Trimming/ CC BY SA 2.0 )

Edward became an icon for the church where he was buried, and although his biography is not the most unusual in history, his charisma and nickname make him one of the most legendary people of England.

Top Image: ‘The Black Knight.’ Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince, was an adept leader on the battlefield too. Source: theflickerees / deviantart

By Natalia Klimczak

References

Richard Phillipson Dunn Pattison, The Black Prince, 1910.

Richard Barber, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine: a biography of the Black Prince, 1978.

David Green, The Black Prince, 2001.

Cromwell's legacy damages tomb of Black Prince, available at:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/6485858/Cromwells-legacy-damages-tomb-of-Black-Prince.html

Comments

Cousin_Jack's picture

First Duke of Cornwall too, they wouldn’t create that peerage for any old bloke. Look at the Great Charter and see the profit in that peerage.

He was known as the black prince because of his blackamoor complexion. His mother Queen Phillipa was described as brown skinned. We cannot trust paintings and history books from a racist time period to tell the full truth because there was and still is a time that pale european royals would not wish to acknowledge their african moorish heritage due to the african being associated with slavery. Many moors and so called blacks are found at the origins and throughout the history of the royal families of europe. The moors will rise to power again because the moors have always wanted knowledge to be shared amongst the whole people and not reserved for a very few so called el-ite which is why they were hated so much in the first place.

I heard Edward was called the Black Prince because like some nobles he preferred to black his armour with a lead-based compound similar to that used on old ovens. Shiny steel needed regular polishing to remove rust which was a problem with non-stainless steel. That was a time-consuming and inconvenient chore in a battlefield situation, when some knights preferred to keep their upper armour on for days. Black armour helped hide rust spots and hand marks so a knight still looked smart with less armour care.

Get some therapy.

This story you tell seems preposterous. Is there any evidence for it?

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