Galen of Pergamon (Claudius Galenus, or in French, Claude Galien) (Paris: Lithograph by Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865).

Galen: A Famous Medical Researcher of Classical Antiquity


Galen of Pergamum was one of the most renowned physicians that the Roman Empire had ever produced. In addition to being a celebrated physician, Galen is said to have also been a philosopher. Unlike his medical treatises, most of Galen’s philosophical writings have been lost, as a result of a fire that destroyed the Temple of Peace in Rome in 191 AD. His medical works, however, have survived, and have dominated the theory and practice of medicine not only of the Roman world, but also of the Islamic world and Medieval Europe.

The Early Life of Galen

Galen is believed to have been born during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian in around 130 AD. His father, a man by the name of Nicon, is recorded to have been a prosperous architect and builder. In his On the Passions and Errors of the Soul , Galen describes his father as such,

“I did enjoy the good fortune of having the least irascible, the most just, the most devoted, and kindest of fathers.”  

By contrast, Galen described his mother as a woman “so very prone to anger”. Between the two, Galen professes to have emulated his father rather than his mother,

“When I compared my father's noble deeds with the disgraceful passions of my mother, I decided to embrace and love his deeds and to flee and hate her passions.”

Portrait of Galen.

Portrait of Galen. ( Public Domain )

Apart from his father, Galen’s early life was also influenced by the city he was born in, Pergamum (Pergamon). During Galen’s days, Pergamum was a bustling and flourishing city. Pergamum also had a library that almost rivalled the famed Library of Alexandria in Egypt, indicating that this was a center of learning. Moreover, Pergamum was famous for its statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine and healing, to whom Galen devoted his life.

According to Galen, at the age of 14, he attended lectures given (mostly) by local philosophers, primarily under a “Stoic who was the disciple of Philopator”. Additionally, he attended lectures for a period of time under a “Platonist, a disciple of Gaius”, a “disciple of Aspasius the Peripatetic”, as well as a “teacher from Athens, an Epicurean”. Galen points out that his father, being a concerned parent, accompanied him to these lectures,

“For my sake, my father made a close investigation of the lives and doctrines of all these men and went along with me to hear them.”

The reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon.

The reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon. (CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Nicon’s training, however, “lay chiefly in the sciences of geometry, arithmetic, architecture, and astronomy”, and viewed the subject of philosophy from quite a different perspective. For instance, drawing from his own experience in the sciences he had been trained in, Nicon reached the conclusion (the process prior to which is unclear, due to the Greek text being defective) that:

“there was no need for my teachers in the liberal disciplines to disagree with one another, just as there was no disagreement among the teachers of old in the aforementioned sciences, of which geometry and arithmetic are the foremost.“ 

Galen’s Medical Studies

From Galen’s writings, it can be seen that his father had a great influence on him, and helped shape his subsequent outlook on life. His greatest impact on Galen’s life, however, was a dream he had. In this dream, Asclepius is said to have appeared to Nicon, telling him to let his son study medicine. Nicon did as the god instructed, and for the next four years, Galen studied under the physicians who gathered in the sanctuary of Asclepius.

Following the death of his father, Galen began travelling, during which he also furthered his medical studies. His travels brought him to various places, including Smyrna, Corinth and Alexandria. After being abroad for a number of years, Galen returned to Pergamum in 157 AD, where he was appointed as a physician to the city’s gladiator. In this position, Galen gained much practical experience in the treatment of wounds. Galen remained in Pergamum until 162 AD, when he left for Rome, either as a result of his own ambitions, or due to the civil unrest that broke out in Pergamum.

‘Muscles Man,’ showing the muscles and spine, back view, on an anatomical diagram. Mid-15th century Anathomia, (English) Claudius (Pseudo) Galen.

‘Muscles Man,’ showing the muscles and spine, back view, on an anatomical diagram. Mid-15th century Anathomia, (English) Claudius (Pseudo) Galen. (CC BY 4.0 )

In Rome, Galen became a successful physician, which made him resented by the other physicians of the city. As he had created powerful enemies, he decided to depart secretly in 166 AD for fear that he might lose his life if he stayed any longer. For the next couple of years, Galen kept a low profile. He was, however, summoned by Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Emperor, to serve as his court physician. Galen continued to serve in this capacity during the reigns of Caracalla and Septimius Severus. Galen died either around 200 AD or 216 AD.

Galen wrote hundreds of treatises. In the field of medicine, he is said to have compiled “all significant Greek and Roman medical knowledge to date”, and added his own observations and theories. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, his works were mostly forgotten in the West.

In the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world, by contrast, Galen’s works were featured prominently in the study of medicine. Thanks to this preservation of knowledge, Galen’s writings were able to find their way back to Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

Featured image: Galen of Pergamon (Claudius Galenus, or in French, Claude Galien) (Paris: Lithograph by Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865). Photo source: Public Domain .

By Wu Mingren                                


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But when you x-ray it, you find you're looking at something that looks remarkably like a human hand- 5 jointed fingers, wrists bones etc. Thus the otherwise "hidden narrative" that might otherwise never have been suspected and eluded us, namely that whales evolved from land-based air-breathing mammals that subsequently returned to the oceans, adapting morphology that initially evolved for entirely different land-basedl purposes.

Hooray: the preamble has posted. Now let's try the next passage, starting with a link to my own site (which may or may not be the sticking point):
At the risk of appearing to contradict myself, maybe we need to look to Darwinian evolution and its processes of adaptation and natural selection to understand why we are at a loss to understand how DNA can avoid the chicken-and-egg conundrum. Wrong analogy (chickens and eggs). Think a whale flipper instead, nicely adapted to a marine existence.

Great. Have obtained a Verification box. Hit SEND for 2nd instalment.

Let's test just the preamble first (the first half having failed to post):

Title:Think prebiotic palaeo-DNA, with a now extinct function as sunscreen for chemical synthesis:

Wow. As forum comments go, that's a juggernaut if ever there was, one perhaps best to let by, hoping it hasn't caused too much damage to the foundations. So many trailers on that juggernaut have been hitched together, like Big Bang and evolution, like evolution and biogenesis, which if the truth be told is an attempt maybe to impose some kind order, dare one say design, where no order exists. (Polite reminder: There could have been a Big Bang without evolution of life, and there can be correct ideas about evolution which make no attempt to explain the origin of life).
However, it was the introductory passage that caught this science blogger's attention, expressed admirably in simple terms, basically asking how there can be biogenesis of DNA without pre-existing DNA as a template. It's a valid and challenging question, one I addressed briefly some years ago:

(Great, we have a Verification box - motoring at last). Now to hit the SEND button.

This splendid site is for some reason not accepting my comment posted to another topic (Cuban submarine structures). I've tried ringing all kinds of changes without success. If this comment posts, then I'll try the 'blocked' one here.
If the comment (on palaeo-DNA) does not appear afterwards, then there's summin' wrong with the comment (despite being non-controversial, or so I imagined).

It's looking promising so far - having obtained the verification box this time- which failed to appear on all earlier tests this morning in the UK, bar a short tester like this one.


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