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Detail of ‘Shaman’, (1930) by Arman Manookian.

The Real Story of Shamanism: No Need to Don a Headdress or Take Hallucinogens

Over the centuries, many of the world’s natural mystics have succumbed to pogroms of elimination or the steady erosion of traditional practices – witches burnt at the stake, indigenous peoples forced into Western schools, healers accused of perpetuating diseases. More recently, a growing sense of modernity’s shortcomings has led to a renaissance of traditional or “pagan” practices. One of the most popular resurgent belief systems is known as shamanism. Interestingly, shamanism is also humanity’s oldest means of connecting with ‘Creation’ as well as one of the most globally prevalent. Fortunately for seekers, you do not need to wear a headdress or take peyote to live a shamanistic life.

What is Shamanism?

Today, many people closely associate shamanism with Native American peoples; however, anthropologists have studied evidence of shaman practices on all six habitable continents, some of which date to the Paleolithic era. Put simply, shamanism is a means by which humans have tried to understand the universe and our place in it. It does not force adherence to any particular deity or dogma. Rather, a shaman concerns him or herself with nature and uses insight to heal (physically, mentally, or spiritually) and to promote communal prosperity. What this means in practice runs the gambit from herbal knowledge to contact with supernatural forces, from cool-headed logic to prophecy.

A North American Indian shaman or medicine man healing a patient.

A North American Indian shaman or medicine man healing a patient. (Wellcome Images/ CC BY 4.0 )

The word shaman derives from the Tunguso-Manchurian word saman. The Tungus people were reindeer herders in the Lake Baikal region of southern Russia. The word stems from their verb sa, which means ‘to know’ (Rutherford, 1996, 2). Shaman came into popular usage thanks to the Russian anthropologist Sergei Mikhailovich Shirokogorov, an early explorer of eastern Siberia and northeast China. In Psychomental Complex of the Tungus (1935), Shirokogorov wrote:

“In all Tungus languages, this term (saman) refers to persons of both sexes who have mastered spirits, who at their will can introduce these spirits into themselves and use their power over the spirits in their own interests, particularly helping other people who suffer from the spirits.” (Shirokogorov quoted in Rutherford, 1996, 2).

Tungus shaman. Drawing 17th century.

Tungus shaman. Drawing 17th century. ( Public Domain )

The term shaman caught on and was applied to a wide spectrum of traditional figures, including: witches, medicine men and women, spiritualists, and fortune tellers. By now, “the term shaman has been broadly & sloppily, [applied] to a vast spectrum of ‘religious’ practitioners. Unfortunately, there is little consensus among researchers, scholars, or laypersons as to exactly what a shaman is &/or does, and some definitions are somewhat culturally biased” (Smith, 2013). Nonetheless, certain traits shine through the confusion, most notably the connection with nature and the desire for personal and communal betterment.

Ceremonies Associated with Shamanism

These qualities have led to a renewed interest in traditional healing practices. The most important part of shamanism is the feeling of connection, both to other members of the community and to the universe at large. Oftentimes, this connection is established through ritualized ceremonies that include chanting, drumming, rhythmic dancing, sensory overload, and occasionally, the consumption of mind-altering substances. Together, these quiet the chattering mind and allow for mental relaxation, rejuvenation, and possibly revelation.

A man of high rank modelled in lotus position. His headdress with great horns and the snake-shaped necklace are typical of a shaman from the Bahia (500 BC-500 AD) culture of Ecuador. Artifact at Casa del Alabado: Museo de Arte Precolombino, Quito, Ecuador. (Credit: Alicia McDermott)

A man of high rank modelled in lotus position. His headdress with great horns and the snake-shaped necklace are typical of a shaman from the Bahia (500 BC-500 AD) culture of Ecuador. Artifact at Casa del Alabado: Museo de Arte Precolombino, Quito, Ecuador. (Credit: Alicia McDermott)

A ceremony can also be invented. For example, “you may make up an 'I want a job I can really enjoy' ceremony. You could meditate for five minutes, write a wish-list of all the things you want from a new job on a piece of paper and then burn it, symbolically sending your message to the spirit world. Performing this ceremony won't guarantee you a new job next Monday, but it will signal to the spirit world and to yourself that you are ready for something new” (Almond, 2000). The idea of smoke carrying a message or intention to the heavens is held by many religions - consider the incense burned during Catholic and Orthodox Christian ceremonies.

Grandmaster Anatole performs shaman ceremony in front of Fox Altar.

Grandmaster Anatole performs shaman ceremony in front of Fox Altar. (Alex Anatole/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

On the other hand, some ceremonies have very specific elements that have been repeated for centuries. As ceremonies are performed again and again, “they bring with them the power and intention of previous occasions. When performed repeatedly a ceremony itself begins to hold power” (Almond, 2000). This is especially true for those shamanistic ceremonies that derived from visions received by ancient shamans. These visions “often contained precise details of how to perform every aspect of the ceremony, as if God were saying that a ceremony performed exactly as described would inherently carry much power and the ability to bring blessings to the planet and its people” (Almond, 2000).

Tuvan shaman Ai-Churek during a Tengi fire ceremony in Tuva, Russia.

Tuvan shaman Ai-Churek during a Tengi fire ceremony in Tuva, Russia. ( Dr. Andreas Hugentobler/ CC BY 2.0 de )

In the end, the effects of a shamanistic ceremony are said to be proportional to your intention. Full-time shamans of the past functioned in a society that allowed them to devote a good deal of time and energy to their craft. This would make for a far more effective rite than, say, meditating for five minutes. Shamanism does not mean magic nor is it solely Native American. It is about connecting with your environment, creating positive energy, and reaching your full potential.

Shamanism is a very general (sometimes even debated) concept, comprising mediator-role figures of several different cultures, with great diversity. That is why this image is a tableau of Shaman figures from several cultures.

Shamanism is a very general (sometimes even debated) concept, comprising mediator-role figures of several different cultures, with great diversity. That is why this image is a tableau of Shaman figures from several cultures. ( Public Domain )

Top Image: Detail of ‘Shaman’, (1930) by Arman Manookian. Source: Public Domain

By Kerry Sullivan

Sources:

Almond, Brett. “Beginners Guide to Shamanism - What Is Shamanism?”  HolisticShop, 2000, www.holisticshop.co.uk/articles/what-is-shamanism

Rutherford, Leo.  Thorsons Principles of Shamanism . Thorsons, 1996.

Smith, C R. “Shamanism.”  Shamanism, Cabrillo Community College, 2013, www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/shaman.html

Comments

No need to take Hallucinogens! These are very wise words and I totally agree with them.
We should never forget that no plant or animal has the intention to teach humans spiritual lessons or give us 'wisdom' or something. The substances that all these plants and animals produce only are there to help the plant or animal to get food, against natural enemies, in the communication in symbiotic relations or in procreation...
You must allways remember that everything you experience when you take these substances: the producer of these substances most of the time wants the reciever to have illusions or sensations of things that aren't actually there!
So be very critical of everything you experience or even better: don't take these substances at all!

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