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exile

Modern depiction of Edward II and Piers Gaveston.

Piers Gaveston: Exile, Secrets, and Jealousy Marked the Life of the Favorite of King Edward II

Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall, was an English nobleman who lived during the 13th and 14th centuries AD. He was “the favorite” of English king Edward II - what exactly that means in his case is...
Max D. Stanley’s painting “The Trail of Tears.”

The Tragedies that Befell the Five Civilized Tribes that were Forced to Trek the Trail of Tears

The Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast tried to assimilate into the European settlers’ society to keep their lands. But the outsiders who coveted their territory didn’t seem to care if...
Left: Pictish warrior (public domain) Right: Scythian Warrior with Axe, Bow, and Spear.

Piecing Together the Origins of Ancient Near East Names in Scotland

Thinking of Scotland, as I do from the somewhat similar mountains of northern India, which has been my home for nigh on twenty years, I do so from a rather Indian perspective; I think of families,...
The Burning of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar’s Army (1630-1660)

By the Rivers of Babylon: Life in Ancient Babylon’s Thriving Jewish Community

In the 6th-century BC, the armies of Babylon destroyed Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Judah. They tore down the city walls, burned the temples, and ran down every person who tried to escape. The few...
Collection of Egyptian Art, design by Anand Balaji

Ostraca: Voices from the Place of Truth—An intimate glimpse into New Kingdom Egypt

Athenians meted out harsh punishments to those who fell afoul of prevalent laws or societal norms. If citizens had done something terrible, they ran the risk of being exiled from the city for up to...
Roman fresco with banquet scene from the Casa dei Casti Amanti (IX 12, 6-8) in Pompeii.

Shave Your Armpits and Don’t Smell Like a Billy-Goat: Ovid’s Art of Love, Relationships and Adultery

Born a year after the assassination of Julius Caesar, Ovid’s first works appeared in the early days of the Augustan principate. Ovid wrote various works throughout his long career, but none so...
The Egyptian Judicial System: Robust Pillar of Empire

The Egyptian Judicial System: Robust Pillar of Empire

Down the millennia, right from the hoary Narmer Palette to the grand reliefs on the walls of the magnificent temples of Ramesses II and that of later rulers; Egyptian artistic canon depicted the...
Assyrian relief of a horseman from Nimrud, now in the British Museum

The Iron Army: Assyria - Deadly and Effective Siege Machine - Part II

Assyrian sappers (soldiers for building, demolitions, general construction) would approach the walls possibly under the cover of shield bears, the same type that protected the archers one could...
Page from the Codex Wallerstein "Mademoiselle Maupin de l'Opéra". Anonymous print, ca. 1700.

Mademoiselle Maupin: A Damsel Who Was Never in Distress

Swords, brawls, and clandestine love affairs are often the stuff of fairy tales and adventure stories. But in the case of Julie d'Aubigny of Paris, this was all part of her everyday life. Also known...
Agrippina and Germanicus (Rubens), 1614.

Germanicus and Agrippina: The Golden Couple, Parents of the “Mad” Emperor Caligula

Roman Emperor Caligula fell severely ill six months into his rule. When he recovered, he abandoned the toga for silk gowns and often dressed as a woman. He also declared himself as a living god...
Spanish inquisition

The Spanish Inquisition: The Truth behind the Dark Legend (Part I)

The Spanish Inquisition was not only a controversial organization, but also little understood by the general public. It was an institution that is haunted by a dark legend and, as you know, legends...