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Illustration of the later Bronze Age by Rasmus Christiansen.               Source: Dandebak

Puzzling Family Structure Revealed in Bronze Age Households

Archaeogenetic analyses have provided new insights into social structures of Bronze age households in ‘Europe’ 4000 years ago. Nuclear families lived together with foreign women and unrelated...
Portrait of an executioner. Warpedgalerie / Adobe Stock

The Dark Life of a Medieval Executioner – A Cut Away from the Rest

It is no surprise that the medieval period was filled with all kinds of undesirable jobs. There were leech collectors, cesspool cleaners, serfs, and gong farmers, to name a few. But one vocation that...
New research claims use of beasts of burden opened the doors to social inequality. Source: Aleksandar Todorovic / Adobe Stock

How Oxen Plowed the Way for Social Inequality

Inequality became rooted in ancient societies with the rise of ox-drawn plows. Ancient societies across Eurasia as far back as 7000 years ago experienced the rise of an upper class. And according to...
The White Lotus Society was a political, religious, and revolutionary movement that that rebelled against the government in imperial China.

The White Lotus Secret Society and the Demise of Mongol Rule in China

The White Lotus Society / Sect (written in Chinese as 白莲教, and Romanized as ‘Bai Lian Jiao’) was a millenarian movement that existed in imperial China. As a religious movement, the teachings of the...
The Norte Chico Civilization: Ancient Peruvian Civilization or Complex Society?

Norte Chico: The First Civilization in the Americas?

The Norte Chico Civilization was an ancient civilization/complex society belonging to the Pre-Columbian era. This civilization flourished in Peru about 5000 years ago, and is believed to be the...
Ninja warrior.

Hwarang, The ‘Flowering Knights’ of Korea: Deadly Warriors That Looked and Smelled Good!

The Hwarang were an extraordinary group of ancient knights from Silla – one of 3 kingdoms in the region of the Korean peninsula . They were an elite sect, chosen from high society families whilst...

Uncovering the Truth Behind Matriarchal Societies in the Ancient World

A theme common amongst the mythology of ancient cultures is a belief in the existence of a Golden Age , when humans lived uncorrupted, in peace and harmony, experiencing prosperity and societal...
View of Lothagam North pillar in Kenya, built by eastern Africa’s earliest herders.

Massive Monumental Cemetery in Eastern Africa Challenges Ideas of Monumentality

Megaliths, stone circles, and cairns flank the 30 meter (100 foot) platform mound; its mortuary cavity contains an estimated several hundred individuals, tightly arranged. Most burials had highly...
Ancient farmers - A Neolithic Revolution

From Hunters to Settlers: How the Neolithic Revolution Changed the World

The archaeological understanding of the Neolithic Revolution (or First Agricultural Revolution) has changed significantly since research on the subject first began in the early 20th century. This...
The skeletons and a depiction of what the grave may have originally looked like.

Mammoth Tears of Compassion Sealed A 34,000-Year-Old Children’s Grave

About 34,000 years ago, two physically challenged boys were buried head to head, with tens of thousands of animal bone offerings, according to a Cambridge Journal of Antiquity paper published last...
Pictorial representation of Pyramid in Teuchitlán Guachimontones Museum.

Were Mexico’s Circular Pyramids Really Made for a Flying Ceremony?

Guachimontones (known alternatively as Huachimontones) is an archaeological site located in the western Mexican state of Jalisco. This is an important site of the Teuchitlan tradition, which was a...
Two burials of individuals with signs of trauma found at Pacopampa, Peru.

Peruvian Oracles Threw Stones and Clubs at Commoners in Acts of Ritual Violence

Healed over fractured skulls and limbs and a dislocated elbow – these are signs that archaeologists are interpreting as evidence of ritual violence having taken place in Peru about 3,200 years ago...
Slaves working in a mine. The sustenance provided by slaves in Ancient Greece meant that citizens had free time to participate in politics.

Did He Create a Blissful Utopia or a Tyrannical Communist Nightmare? Plato’s Ancient Class System and Social Engineering Revealed

Perhaps surprisingly to some, classical Greek philosopher Plato was a social engineer; and he was the first of many “planners” to come. In essence, Plato, who laid the foundations of Western...
King Haraldr hárfagri receives the kingdom out of his father's hands. From the 14th century Icelandic manuscript Flateyjarbók.

Icelander Sagas May Have More Truth to Them than You Think

Myths and legends – purely the creation of creative and imaginative minds, right? Not necessarily. Numerous stories, sagas, and texts from the ancient past have been proven to hold facts. For example...
The Chavola of the Sorceress, Dolmen in Alava, Spain

Neolithic Bones Reveal Socio-economic and Cultural Differences are Nothing New For Spain

The researcher Teresa Fernández-Crespo, lead author of this study, had in a previous piece of work found demographic differences between the people buried in dolmens and those buried in caves: while...
Reconstructed heads of the children that may have been sacrificed for a double burial in Sunghir, Russia.

The Sunghir Burial Site: Were these Two Children Sacrificed in a Form of Prehistoric Scapegoating?

One of the clearest signs of behavioral modernity in the archaeological record is the appearance of art and religion. Once we see indications of creative and speculative minds at work trying to...

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