The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts

The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts


Sumer, or the ‘land of civilized kings’, flourished in Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, around 4500 BC. Sumerians created an advanced civilization with its own system of elaborate language and writing, architecture and arts, astronomy and mathematics. Their religious system was a complex one comprised of hundreds of gods. According to the ancient texts, each Sumerian city was guarded by its own god; and while humans and gods used to live together, the humans were servants to the gods.

The Sumerian creation myth can be found on a tablet in Nippur, an ancient Mesopotamian city founded in approximately 5000 BC.

The creation of Earth ( Enuma Elish ) according to the Sumerian tablets begins like this:

When in the height heaven was not named,
And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,
And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both
Their waters were mingled together,
And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
When of the gods none had been called into being,
And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained;
Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven,
Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being...

Sumerian mythology claims that, in the beginning, human-like gods ruled over Earth. When they came to the Earth, there was much work to be done and these gods toiled the soil, digging to make it habitable and mining its minerals.

The texts mention that at some point the gods mutinied against their labour.

When the gods like men
Bore the work and suffered the toll
The toil of the gods was great,
The work was heavy, the distress was much.

Anu, the god of gods, agreed that their labour was too great. His son Enki, or Ea, proposed to create man to bear the labour, and so, with the help of his half-sister Ninki, he did. A god was put to death, and his body and blood was mixed with clay. From that material the first human being was created, in likeness to the gods.

You have slaughtered a god together
With his personality
I have removed your heavy work
I have imposed your toil on man.

In the clay, god and man
Shall be bound,
To a unity brought together;
So that to the end of days
The Flesh and the Soul
Which in a god have ripened –
That soul in a blood-kinship be bound.

This first man was created in Eden, a Sumerian word which means ‘flat terrain’. In the Epic of Gilgamesh , Eden is mentioned as the garden of the gods and is located somewhere in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Sumerian tablet depicting Enki in the creation myth. (

Initially human beings were unable to reproduce on their own, but were later modified with the help of Enki and Ninki. Thus, Adapa was created as a fully functional and independent human being. This ‘modification’ was done without the approval of Enki’s brother, Enlil, and a conflict between the gods began. Enlil became the adversary of man, and the Sumerian tablet mentions that men served gods and went through much hardship and suffering.

Adapa, with the help of Enki, ascended to Anu where he failed to answer a question about ‘the bread and water of life’. Opinions vary on the similarities between this creation story and the biblical story of Adam and Eve in Eden.

Top image: Sumerian chaos monster and sun god. ( Wikipedia)

Note: Ancient Sumerian translations were taken from William Bramley’s book, The Gods of Eden .


I am currenly deciphering the Genesis of Reu's 12-year zodiac before Chinese calendar. And before Monkey zone drifted to Leo stars it is clear that Genesis data indicates a Leo Sheep then a Virgo Monkey then a Libra Horse which according to you i would be looking for a Jupiter Marduk in the Sumerian Chinese year of Libra Horse (60-year Jupiter is 360-day and spans only 59 years as 2206bc May 24 to 2147bc July 13 to 2088bc Sep 1 to 2029bc Oct 21 to 1970bc-1911bc for five times between each of these dates. The Libra Jupiter of 2088bc is also a rising Mars that is wrongly debated as birth of Terah or birth of his son Haran (though neither because terah is 2148bc Monkey and Haran is 2078bc). Wrong versions of Haran such as by Jasher, they all place Haran born when Terah was 39 which is thrice 13-year Mars, not thrice 12-year Jupiter.

Richard Schiller, you replied:
"dividing Tiamat in half is not the Milly Way dividing north galactic from south galactic. The horizon divides Tiamat the uper world of sky from lower world of earth soil ground (though that also includes Lower sky under the earth)"

I agree that Tiamat does not divide the Milky Way in half. Tiamat represents the very contours of the southern hemisphere half Milky Way.

Quote from

“In Mesopotamian Religion (Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian and Babylonian), Tiamat is a primordial goddess of the ocean, mating with Abzû (the god of fresh water) to produce younger gods. She is the symbol of the chaos of primordial creation, depicted as a woman, she represents the beauty of the feminine, depicted as the glistening one”.

How does this mythical interpretation fit to your planetary ideas Tiamat is a womanlike figure in the Sky? (Are you aware of the Roman naming of the planets when adopting Christianity, thus giving the ancient known 5 planets names which originally belongs to their Olympic deities of creation?)

dividing Tiamat in half is not the Milly Way dividing north galactic from south galactic. The horizon divides Tiamat the uper world of sky from lower world of earth soil ground (though that also includes Lower sky under the earth). A rebonr planet or star rise on the divide that splits Tiamat. For Mars the Marduk date splitting Tiamat in 7 days is 2009bc July 8. The 7 days are correctly 360-day calendar and 7 of 52 years (364 of 360-day in a 359-year span back to the Flood as creation). However, other versions of 7 also exist just for Mars as 7x 156 tun and 7x 156 haab, as well as the 205-year Marduk which is 208 tun (so 7x 208 tun = 1456 tun or 1435 Julian). Why stop at Milky Way divided in upper and lower, maybe the whole sphere of all galaxies has an upper and lower where most galaxies too are in an exploding ring around the center. Reminds me of Hindu how they have taken 1200 years and made it 432,000 years

Furthermore from

“Nibiru has been associated with the area of Libra: The Nibiru constellation rose in the month of Tišritum, around autumnal equinox, however Nibiru was also a name for the planet Jupiter[8] when observed in the month of Tišritum. In the MUL.APIN, Nibiru is identified as Jupiter:

When the stars of Enlil have been finished, one big star – although its light is dim – divides the sky in half and stands there: that is, the star of Marduk (MUL dAMAR.UD), Nibiru (né-bé-ru), Jupiter (MULSAG.ME.GAR); it keeps changing its position and crosses the sky”.

“One big star” – or planet - cannot divide the sky in two halves and “stand there” and at the same time “changing its positions and crossing the sky”.

There is only ONE celestial or starry object, which fits to the explanation above and this is the whitish crescent and seemingly revolving contours of the Milky Way “although its light is dim”.

This figure revolves around the celestial point, Nibiru, and as this Milky Way contour mythologically resembles the “great male god in the Sky”, called Marduk in the Babylonian mythology/astronomy, this figure of course is equal to the Roman supreme god Jupiter and subsequently, this myth has nothing to do with planets at all. Link -

Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher

Richard Schiller,

I think scholars mistake the Nibiru myth when thinking of the "highest point" on the ecliptica as summersolstice, just as this is told in - -

"Nibiru (in cuneiform spelled dné-bé-ru or MULni-bi-rum) is a term of the highest point of the ecliptic".

If not having other candidates to "the celestial highest point", scholars of course can use the ecliptica and thus interpret Nibiru as one of the planets, but it isn´t a planet.

"Nibiru, which is said to have occupied the passageways of heaven and earth, because everyone above and below asks Nibiru if they cannot find the passage. Nibiru is Marduk's star which the gods in heaven caused to be visible. Nibiru stands as a post at the turning point. The others say of Nibiru the post: "The one who crosses the middle of the sea (Tiamat) without calm, may his name be Nibiru, for he takes up the center of it". The path of the stars of the sky should be kept unchanged".

This undoubtedly sets Marduk´s Nibiru to be the celestial pole star "as a (highest) post standing at the turning point" and not a planetary motion on the ecliptica.

The Nibiru myth deals with a concrete mytho-cosmogonical order and not with any periodically disasterous event..