Galloway Hoard Study Reveals Some Surprising Secrets
Researchers have just revealed that what is perhaps Europe’s most famous Viking Age hoard – the Galloway Hoard – was not a rapidly concealed family treasure being hidden from invaders. Rather, it was a ritually assembled and buried treasure representing four men of different statuses in Viking Age Scotland.
The famous “Galloway Hoard” was unearthed by a metal-detectorist in 2014 at Balmaghie, in Kirkcudbrightshire, in the southwest of Scotland. It was subsequently acquired for Scotland's National Collection for £2million (around $2.6 million). Containing an exotic array of materials and treasures from Ireland, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and Asia, according to National Museums of Scotland ( NMS) it is regarded as “the richest collection of rare and unique Viking-age objects ever found in Britain or Ireland.”
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Buried around 900 AD, the Galloway Hoard is now back in the press. Archaeologists now believe that four different owners, of different social backgrounds, might have come together to bury this spectacular, and deeply-mystical, collection of curious and culturally priceless Viking-age treasures.
A Hoard that Defies Stereotypes
Dr Martin Goldberg is the principal curator of medieval archaeology at NMS and he said the “stereotypical Viking hoard,” is created when people came under immediate threat of attack. The families of Vikings often buried treasure in the ground in haste, so they could be hidden and potentially retrieved later – it was one thing knowing you were going to be slaughtered, but the last thing you would want is the invader increasing his wealth on your life savings as well.
Left: Large silver alloy Carolingian vessel, which was part of the hoard. Right: Derek McLennan, the finder of the treasure hoard. (Jamie Simpson)
But this was not the case for the Galloway Hoard, said Dr Goldberg. It appears to have been carefully assembled in an almost ritualistic nature, with no signs of having been buried in a rush. This is supported by the finds themselves: close analysis of a silver-gilt vessel that made up one of the layers reveals it was packed full of carefully wrapped wool.
The rare collection of gold and silver jewelry, curios and cloths, was buried in the south west of Scotland more than 1,000 years ago, arranged over four distinct layers in the ground. Dr Goldberg said there are "four separate groups of arm rings in the hoard but they are not equal in quality so we believe the four owners may not be equal in status.”
An article in The Scotsman notes the names Ed, Til and Ber” have been found engraved on silver arms rings, and on a fourth Runic inscription yet to be translated, and these are all “Anglo-Saxon abbreviations”. Dr Goldberg said these abbreviations, “bring the people connected to the hoard to the fore,” and he added that while quite often with people in the past there is no face, in this case there are four.
A “Mind Blowing” Discovery
Dr Goldberg said the collection of objects, “from beads to pendants and a rock crystal jar,” resulted in a “mind blowing” discovery for the museum. He chose this term as the find is truly unusual, with only two other lidded vessels ever being found in Viking Age hoards in Britain and Ireland. The vessel was dated to 680-780 AD, and wrapped in wool too fragile to scan even with 3D lasers. Dr Goldberg said the designs on the jewelry show “leopards, tigers and Zoroastrian religious symbols,” all suggesting at least that this piece was crafted in Central Asia.
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The Viking Age is well-known for its gold and silver hoards and many similar discoveries have been found around Britain or Ireland. However, the Galloway Hoard brings together a stunning variety of materials in one discovery, as well as objects which have never before been discovered in Viking Age hoard.
Further finds from the Galloway hoard (National Museums Scotland / CC BY-SA 4.0 )
A three-year research program probing further into the origins of the hoard is now underway at Glasgow University. But for now, Professor Goldberg told The Independent that researchers are trying to further understand the lives of the people who assembled the hoard, through the treasured objects that they so valued they went to the grave with them.
Top image: Pectoral Cross from the Galloway Hoard. Source: National Museums Scotland / CC BY-SA 4.0 .
By Ashley Cowie