Scandinavia's First Farmers Slaughtered the Hunter-gatherer Population
Following the arrival of the first farmers in Scandinavia 5,900 years ago, the hunter-gatherer population was wiped out within a few generations, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden, among others. The results, which are contrary to prevailing opinion, are based on DNA analysis of skeletons and teeth found in what is now Denmark.
The extensive study has been published as four separate articles in the journal Nature. An international research team, of which Lund University in Sweden is a member, has been able to draw new conclusions about the effects of migration on ancient populations by extracting DNA from skeletal parts and teeth of prehistoric people.
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Evidence of Violent Transitions and Population Turnovers
The study shows, among other things, that there have been two almost total population turnovers in Denmark over the past 7,300 years.
The first population change happened 5,900 years ago when a farmer population, with a different origin and appearance, drove out the gatherers, hunters and fishers who had previously populated Scandinavia.
Within a few generations, almost the entire hunter-gatherer population was wiped out.
"This transition has previously been presented as peaceful. However, our study indicates the opposite. In addition to violent death, it is likely that new pathogens from livestock finished off many gatherers," says Anne Birgitte Nielsen, geology researcher and head of the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Lund University.
A thousand years later, about 4,850 years ago, another population change took place when people with genetic roots in Yamnaya - a livestock herding people with origins in southern Russia -- came to Scandinavia and wiped out the previous farmer population.
Once again, this could have involved both violence and new pathogens.
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Hunter-gatherers in a violent encounter. (HaiderShah/Adobe Stock)
These big-boned people pursued a semi-nomadic life on the steppes, tamed animals, kept domestic cattle and moved over large areas using horses and carts.
The people who settled in our climes were a mix between Yamnaya and Eastern European Neolithic people.
This genetic profile is dominant in today's Denmark, whereas the DNA profile of the first farmer population has been essentially erased.
"This time there was also a rapid population turnover, with virtually no descendants from the predecessors. We don't have as much DNA material from Sweden, but what there is points to a similar course of events. In other words, many Swedes are to a great extent also descendants of these semi-nomads," says Anne Birgitte Nielsen, who contributed quantitative pollen data which shows how the vegetation changed in connection with the population changes.
Implications for Modern Understanding of Heritage and Disease
The results do not just overturn previous theories about amorous and peaceful meetings between groups of people.
The study also provides a deepened understanding of historical migration flows, and the interpretation of archaeological finds and changes in vegetation and land use found in palaeoecological data.
"Our results help to enhance our knowledge of our heredity and our understanding of the development of certain diseases. Something that in the long term could be beneficial, for example in medical research," concludes Anne Birgitte Nielsen.
In addition to Lund University, around 40 European, American and Australian higher education institutions and organisations took part in the study.
Top image: Representation of hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia. Source: HaiderShah/Adobe Stock
The article, "Scandinavia's first farmers slaughtered the hunter-gatherer population, study finds" was originally published om Science Daily.
Source: Lund University. "Scandinavia's first farmers slaughtered the hunter-gatherer population, study finds." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 February 2024. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2024/02/240208121958.htm
Morten E. Allentoft, Martin Sikora, Anders Fischer, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Andrés Ingason, Ruairidh Macleod, Anders Rosengren, Bettina Schulz Paulsson, Marie Louise Schjellerup Jørkov, Maria Novosolov, Jesper Stenderup, T. Douglas Price, Morten Fischer Mortensen, Anne Birgitte Nielsen, Mikkel Ulfeldt Hede, Lasse Sørensen, Poul Otto Nielsen, Peter Rasmussen, Theis Zetner Trolle Jensen, Alba Refoyo-Martínez, Evan K. Irving-Pease, William Barrie, Alice Pearson, Bárbara Sousa da Mota, Fabrice Demeter, Rasmus A. Henriksen, Tharsika Vimala, Hugh McColl, Andrew Vaughn, Lasse Vinner, Gabriel Renaud, Aaron Stern, Niels Nørkjær Johannsen, Abigail Daisy Ramsøe, Andrew Joseph Schork, Anthony Ruter, Anne Birgitte Gotfredsen, Bjarne Henning Nielsen, Erik Brinch Petersen, Esben Kannegaard, Jesper Hansen, Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, Lisbeth Pedersen, Lutz Klassen, Morten Meldgaard, Morten Johansen, Otto Christian Uldum, Per Lotz, Per Lysdahl, Pernille Bangsgaard, Peter Vang Petersen, Rikke Maring, Rune Iversen, Sidsel Wåhlin, Søren Anker Sørensen, Søren H. Andersen, Thomas Jørgensen, Niels Lynnerup, Daniel J. Lawson, Simon Rasmussen, Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen, Kurt H. Kjær, Richard Durbin, Rasmus Nielsen, Olivier Delaneau, Thomas Werge, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev. ‘ 100 ancient genomes show repeated population turnovers in Neolithic Denmark’. Nature, 2024; 625 (7994): 329 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-06862-3