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Baroque man looking very surprised at royal scandals. Source: ajr_images/Adobe Stock

Top 10 Royal Scandals That Left Society Aghast


Throughout history, royal families were often the image of the nations they ruled over. They were expected to conduct themselves with grace and dignity, to be shrewd and capable monarchs, and to lead their people to victory and prosperity. While many nations did have such remarkable kings and queens, other royals fell prey to the magnetic pull of wealth, fame and a world of endless possibilities. When royalty succumbs to such a lifestyle, royal scandals are always sure to follow. So, what happens when royalty goes wild? Here are the top 10 ancient royal scandals that truly shocked society.

Royal Scandals #1: The Love Triangle of Cleopatra, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony

In the annals of ancient history, few tales of love and political intrigue rival the sensational story of Cleopatra, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. This ancient royal scandal is a timeless reminder that love and power often intertwine with enormous consequences.

Cleopatra's involvement with both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony was more than just romantic—it was deeply political. When Caesar arrived in Egypt, he and Cleopatra became lovers. Their union was seen as a strategic move to secure Roman support for her rule in Egypt.

After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Cleopatra found herself in a precarious position. She aligned herself with Mark Antony, who was engaged in a power struggle with Caesar's heir, Octavian (later known as Augustus).

Cleopatra and Mark Antony's passionate relationship was the stuff of legends. They even had three children together, further complicating the political landscape. The love affair between Cleopatra and Mark Antony had far-reaching consequences. Octavian used their relationship as a propaganda tool to paint Mark Antony as a traitor under Cleopatra's enchantment. In 31 BC, the famous Battle of Actium ensued, where Octavian's forces defeated Antony and Cleopatra's fleet.

Facing defeat and capture, Antony and Cleopatra chose to die by suicide rather than be paraded as captives in Rome. Their deaths marked the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the annexation of Egypt into the Roman Empire. For the period of history in which it unfolded, this royal scandal truly left Roman society in shock and awe.

The love story between Queen Cleopatra and Mark Antony is one of the most famous royal scandals in history, depicted here by Joseph Christian Leyendecker. (Public domain)

The love story between Queen Cleopatra and Mark Antony is one of the most famous royal scandals in history, depicted here by Joseph Christian Leyendecker. (Public domain)

Royal Scandals #2: The Madness of King George III

The reign of King George III of England, who ruled from 1760 to 1820, is often remembered for the tumultuous events surrounding his mental health. The mental illness of this British monarch, whose rule spanned the American Revolutionary War, had a profound impact on both his personal life and the political landscape of the time.

George III was born in 1738 and became king at the young age of 22. He was determined to be a strong and virtuous ruler, but his reign was marked by ongoing conflicts, including the American Revolutionary War, the loss of the American colonies and tensions with other European powers, especially Napoleon.

George III's mental health issues first manifested in 1765 when he experienced a period of intense stress due to political pressures. He exhibited symptoms of what was later diagnosed as bipolar disorder, characterized by mood swings, erratic behavior and episodes of mania and depression.

The king's erratic behavior and unpredictable mood swings created significant challenges for his government and ministers. During episodes of mania, he would make impulsive decisions and engage in lavish spending, while during depressive episodes, he withdrew from public life.

His mental illness contributed to a power vacuum in the government, as various factions jockeyed for influence in the absence of a decisive ruler. This instability had a notable impact on British politics and foreign affairs. Although everyone wanted to keep this secret, the rumors began spreading, leaving English society shocked and fearful for their realm.

George III's condition was poorly understood in the 18th century, and his treatment often involved harsh and ineffective remedies, such as bloodletting and purging. Alas, his mental issues were never fully resolved, and he died an old man with a legacy of madness weighing him down.

Royal Scandals #3: The Affair of Queen Anne and Sarah Churchill

The 18th century in England was marked by political intrigue, royal power plays and shifting allegiances. At the center of one of the most scandalous and consequential royal affairs of the era was Queen Anne and her close confidante, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough.

The royal scandal began with a close and intimate friendship between Queen Anne and Sarah Churchill. Sarah was not only Anne's trusted friend but also her Lady of the Bedchamber. Their bond was so strong that they referred to each other with affectionate nicknames—Queen Anne as “Mrs. Morley” and Sarah as “Mrs. Freeman”—to make them feel equal.

Their relationship was so strong and intimate that the English society was simply stunned and in disbelief. However, the relationship soured over time due to a combination of personal and political factors. Sarah's domineering personality and her husband's role as a military leader in the War of Spanish Succession strained her relationship with Anne, while political differences and tensions over Sarah's demands for favors and influence added fuel to the fire.

The Queen Anne-Sarah Churchill rift had significant political consequences. Anne began to distance herself from the Marlboroughs and the Whig party, which they supported. She formed a closer alliance with the Tories and Robert Harley, who became her chief minister.

Anne's shift in alliances had profound effects on British politics, foreign policy and the War of Spanish Succession. The change in leadership and the direction of the war were pivotal factors in shaping the post-war settlement.

Portrait of Sarah Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough, whose intimate friendship with Queen Anne became a royal scandal. (Public domain)

Portrait of Sarah Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough, whose intimate friendship with Queen Anne became a royal scandal. (Public domain)

Royal Scandals #4: The Roman Emperor Nero and His Extravagant Lifestyle

Emperor Nero, who reigned from 54 to 68 AD, is infamous for his extravagant and scandalous lifestyle. His rule marked a period of excess and debauchery in ancient Rome. Nero was notorious for his lavish spending on luxuries, including elaborate parties, grand palaces and even a colossal, gilded statue of himself.

One of the most shocking aspects of Nero's reign was his rumored involvement in the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD. While the true cause of the fire remains disputed, Nero's decision to blame and persecute Christians for it is well-documented. This event sparked a wave of religious persecution and created a lasting negative image of Nero as a ruthless tyrant.

Nero's personal life was equally scandalous. He married and divorced multiple times, including marrying a former slave, Sporus, whom he had castrated to resemble his deceased wife. His erratic behavior and disregard for the Senate and traditional Roman values contributed to his eventual downfall. In 68 AD, Nero faced a rebellion and chose to take his own life rather than be captured.

Nero’s reign is remembered as a dark chapter in Roman history, marked by extravagance, cruelty and political instability. His scandals and excesses have left an indelible mark on our perception of ancient Rome.

Royal Scandals #5: The Abdication of King Edward VIII for Wallis Simpson

In the long history of British royalty, few events have reverberated as profoundly as the abdication crisis of King Edward VIII in 1936. Edward's decision to relinquish the throne in order to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite, was a seismic shock to the monarchy and the nation.

While Edward VIII ascended to the throne in January 1936, within months he had declared his intention to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American woman. At the time, the Church of England, of which the king was the head, vehemently opposed the remarriage of divorced persons if their former spouses were still alive. This created a constitutional crisis.

The scandal unfolded against the backdrop of political and public turmoil. Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, the Church and much of the British public were against the marriage. Facing immense pressure, Edward chose love over the throne and abdicated in December 1936, becoming the Duke of Windsor.

Edward and Wallis married in June 1937 and their life in exile took them to various countries, including France and the United States. They remained a subject of fascination and controversy, especially during World War II when their ties to Nazi sympathizers raised suspicions.

The abdication crisis reshaped the British monarchy, leading to King George VI's reign and setting precedents for future royal marriages. Edward and Wallis's love story remains both captivating and divisive, illustrating the complex interplay between personal desires, royal duty and public expectations in the lives of monarchs.

The abdication of King Edward VIII to marry the American socialite Wallis Simpson was a truly royal scandal. (Public domain)

The abdication of King Edward VIII to marry the American socialite Wallis Simpson was a truly royal scandal. (Public domain)

Royal Scandals #6: The Scandalous Life of Catherine the Great

The world’s most powerful monarchs are often the most scandalous. Catherine the Great, born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, reigned as the Empress of Russia from 1762 until her death in 1796. Her life was marked by a series of scandalous events and controversies that have left an enduring legacy.

One of the most well-known aspects of Catherine's life was her penchant for romantic liaisons. She married Peter III of Russia, a deeply unpopular ruler, but their marriage was tumultuous, leading to rumors of Catherine's affairs. Following Peter's ascension to the throne, Catherine staged a coup, leading to his abdication and her own rise to power.

Catherine's love life continued to be the subject of intrigue. She had several lovers, most notably Grigory Potemkin, a military leader and statesman, with whom she maintained a long and passionate relationship. Their affair fueled gossip and court intrigue.

Her reign was also marked by her intellectual pursuits. She corresponded with Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire and Denis Diderot, earning her a reputation as an enlightened monarch. However, her support for the French Revolution waned as it turned more radical, leading to criticism.

While Catherine's legacy is a mix of enlightened reforms and personal controversies, her impact on Russia's transformation into a major European power cannot be denied. Her rule, though marred by scandal, remains a pivotal era in Russian history and the Enlightenment period.

Royal Scandals #7: The Many Mistresses of King Charles II

King Charles II of England—known as the “Merry Monarch”—had a colorful and scandalous personal life during his reign from 1660 to 1685. One of the most shocking aspects of his reign was his multitude of mistresses, of whose existence many knew. He had an incredible number of lovers, and he admitted having 12 illegitimate children with several of them. However, the most shocking scandals involved intrigues and rumors of poisoning attempts at court. The most scandalous were the affairs with Barbara Palmer, Louise de Kéroualle and Nell Gwyn.

Barbara Palmer, the most famous of his mistresses, wielded considerable influence at court. However, her relationship with the king soured, leading to rumors of her poisoning him. Although no concrete evidence exists to support these claims, the suspicion lingered.

Louise de Kéroualle, a French mistress, faced similar rumors. Some contemporaries believed she was involved in an assassination attempt against the king, possibly through poison. Again, no conclusive proof emerged, but these allegations contributed to the intrigue surrounding Charles II's court.

Nell Gwyn, another of Charles's mistresses, escaped the poisoning rumors. Instead, she is remembered for her wit and charm. Although her life was less scandalous than Barbara and Louise, her role in the king's entourage added to the intriguing mix of personalities at court.

These scandals and intrigues of Charles II's reign underscored the complex and often tumultuous nature of royal relationships during the Restoration era. While many claims of poisoning remain unverified, they remain an integral part of the colorful tapestry of Charles II's reign and the intrigues of his court.

Portrait of Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland and mistress of Charles II of England, by Henri Gascar. (Public domain)

Portrait of Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland and mistress of Charles II of England, by Henri Gascar. (Public domain)

Royal Scandals #8: The Scandalous Marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette's marriage in the late 18th century was another event marked by royal scandal, extravagance and political turmoil, contributing significantly to the downfall of the French monarchy. Marie Antoinette, an Austrian archduchess, married Louis XVI the King of France in 1770 as part of a political alliance between France and Austria. Their marriage was intended to strengthen ties between the two powerful European nations.

However, from the outset, their union was mired in controversy. Marie Antoinette faced criticism and scorn from the French court for her Austrian origins, leading to political tensions. Moreover, the couple's extravagant spending, particularly Marie Antoinette's lavish lifestyle at the Palace of Versailles, fueled public resentment. Her nickname, Madame Déficit, reflected the belief that she was a symbol of the monarchy's financial irresponsibility.

As France faced severe financial crises in the late 18th century, the royal couple's perceived indifference to the suffering of the common people further fueled anger. The extravagant lifestyle they maintained, marked by grand parties and luxury, stood in stark contrast to the hardships endured by many French citizens.

These scandals and controversies surrounding Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette played a significant role in eroding public trust in the monarchy and contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. Ultimately, their reign ended in tragedy with their execution by guillotine during the Reign of Terror in 1793, marking a pivotal moment in French history.

Marie Antoinette on her way to the guillotine, in a painting by Georges Cain. (Public domain)

Marie Antoinette on her way to the guillotine, in a painting by Georges Cain. (Public domain)

Royal Scandals #9: The Death of King Tutankhamun

Even in ancient history, scandals and mysteries were not uncommon. King Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332 to 1323 BC) whose life and death have long been shrouded in mystery. The scandal surrounding King Tutankhamun revolves primarily around the theories and investigations into the circumstances of his death.

Tutankhamun ascended to the throne at a young age and ruled for a relatively short time. His reign was marked by efforts to restore traditional Egyptian religious practices after his predecessor Akhenaten's period of religious upheaval. Tutankhamun's sudden death, around the age of 18, raised suspicions.

One theory posits that King Tut died from complications due to a broken leg, which became infected. Another theory suggests that he may have suffered from genetic disorders or illnesses that contributed to his early demise. However, what makes King Tutankhamun's death scandalous is the speculation that he might have been murdered. Some historians and researchers have suggested that political intrigue, power struggles or foul play may have played a role in his death.

Modern forensic examinations, including CT scans of his mummy, have yielded valuable insights into Tutankhamun's physical condition, but the exact cause of death remains a subject of debate and controversy. The scandal of his death continues to captivate the world, with ongoing research shedding new light on this ancient mystery, keeping King Tutankhamun's legacy alive.

Royal Scandals #10: The Incestuous Relationships of the Ptolemaic Dynasty

The Ptolemaic Dynasty, which ruled over ancient Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the Roman conquest in 30 BC, is infamous for its incestuous relationships among its rulers. This scandalous practice was driven by a desire to maintain the purity of their Greek-Macedonian bloodline and retain power within the family.

The most famous example of this incestuous behavior was the union between Cleopatra VII and her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII. Cleopatra, in her quest for power, married her brother as was customary in the dynasty, but their contentious relationship led to political turmoil and ultimately Cleopatra's alliance with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Cleopatra's own relationships were marked by incest as well. She had children with both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, further intertwining their family trees.

Incestuous marriages were not limited to Cleopatra; they were a recurring pattern among Ptolemaic rulers. The dynasty's obsession with purity eventually led to a significant decline in the health and mental faculties of its members, contributing to its eventual downfall.

Top image: Baroque man looking very surprised at royal scandals. Source: ajr_images/Adobe Stock

By Aleksa Vučković


Cahn, L. 24 July 2023. “13 Royal Family Scandals That Shocked the World” in Reader’s Digest. Available at:

Grey, O. 22 September 2021. “5 Royal Scandals Throughout History” in The Archive. Available at:

Raybourn, D. 12 March 2020. “Royal Scandals Through the Centuries” in Crime Reads. Available at:

Aleksa Vučković's picture


I am a published author of over ten historical fiction novels, and I specialize in Slavic linguistics. Always pursuing my passions for writing, history and literature, I strive to deliver a thrilling and captivating read that touches upon history's most... Read More

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