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Pharaoh Akhenaten in the center and his family worshiping Aten personified as the rays of a solar disk; later such imagery was prohibited.		Source: Egyptian Museum / Public domain

Explaining the Weirdly Alien Looking Statues of Pharaoh Akhenaten

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In the history of Ancient Egypt, Akhenaten occupies a very special place. Of all the pharaohs over the many centuries, he was by far the most controversial one. His radical policies, major religious reforms, and social changes, all caused a lot of instability in the Ancient Egyptian state. His reign and the changes he put through were one of the major turbulences in the entire timeline of this ancient civilization, and arguably caused a spiraling and slow downfall that could not be remedied by his successors. One of the major changes Akhenaten introduced was in art. Sculptures, carvings, and paintings from his reign are all markedly different from the usual Egyptian fare. Human features were accentuated to impossible and odd proportions, and some pieces look outright alien. This has caused a lot of unique theories to spring up over time. But what was the actual reason the odd art pieces propagated by Akhenaten?

A colossal statue of Akhenaten from his Aten Temple at Karnak on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. (CC BY-SA 2.5)

A colossal statue of Akhenaten from his Aten Temple at Karnak on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. ( CC BY-SA 2.5 )

Akhenaten and His Controversial Reign

We can understand a lot about Akhenaten’s controversial reign by just observing his origins. He was a son of Pharaoh Amenhotep III . The reign of this exalted ruler was marked as a period of unparalleled prosperity in Ancient Egypt. Amenhotep III reigned from circa 1388 to 1351 BC as the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty . During this time arts, culture, architecture, and international power within Ancient Egypt were at their absolute zenith. To that end, we can understand that Amenhotep III’s son, the future Akhenaten, was born and raised in relative peace, prosperity, and abundance. In fact, in Akhenaten’s life there were little to no hardships that would toughen up and shape a future ruler. Could it be that much of his questionable future stems from such an idyllic background?

Upon the death of his father Amenhotep III, and his older brother Thutmose, young Akhenaten became the tenth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Akhenaten was not his original name: at birth and ascension to the throne, he was named Amenhotep IV. But after the fifth year of his reign, around the time when he began introducing his odd policies, he adopted the name Akhenaten, meaning “Effective for the Aten.”

This famous (or infamous) pharaoh is best known for his radical and revolutionary changes to the traditional Ancient Egyptian polytheistic religion . Initially in his reign, he followed the established traditions that were followed by his father also. But after that fateful fifth year into his rule, young Amenhotep IV underwent a major transformation. He officially changed his name to Akhenaten, and became a devotee of the cult of Aten, changing his allegiance from the cult of Amun . And over the following twelve years, he caused a major ruckus across the Egyptian state. And he became known as the “Heretic Pharaoh” by instigating major changes in Egyptian religion and art.

Aten depicted in art from the throne of Tutankhamun, which may have been originally made for Akhenaten himself. (Djehouty / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Aten depicted in art from the throne of Tutankhamun, which may have been originally made for Akhenaten himself. (Djehouty / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Aten: The Living Incarnation of the Sun Itself

First, a word or two about Aten. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, Aten was the great disc of the Sun, initially another aspect of the God Ra . The symbol of Aten was the Sun disc and its radiating rays of light. In many ways, Aten could be considered as the Sun, personified.

In Akhenaten’s time, Aten, the Sun Disc, was not new. It had existed for centuries and was a small and lesser-known religious cult god, like many others. The major religious deity of Akhenaten’s time, however, was that of God Amun . The cult of Amun was a major religious (and political) player within Ancient Egypt. The powerful priests of Amun held a lot of power in the state, and at its peak (during the reign of Amenhotep III), the cult of Amun owned more land than the pharaoh himself. And by the time Akhenaten came to the throne, the priests of Amun were almost on an equal standing with the pharaoh, in terms of wealth and influence.

It is possible that Akhenaten, seeking to curb the power of this major religious cult and place himself on top, decided to shift from the traditional religious norms. To that end, he pronounced himself as the “living incarnation of a single all-powerful deity known as Aten,” outlawing the traditional Ancient Egyptian religion, and, in the process, closed all major temples and suppressed religious practices.

After centuries of well-developed Egyptian religion, this came as a major change that was not well accepted in society. Atenism, the religion that Akhenaten introduced, is widely regarded as absolute monotheism, which is radically different from polytheism.

Over the following years, the changes in Egyptian society kept piling up. Akhenaten ordered the creation of a completely new capital city. It was called Akhetaten, the Horizon of Aten, and is today known as Amarna. The city defined the “Amarna period,” the official name for the period of Akhenaten’s reign. And the Amarna period was unlike anything else in the entire history of Ancient Egypt.

Akhenaten “bathing” in the solar light of Aten, the new god of ultimate stature in the radically unique Amarna period. (Hans Ollermann / CC BY 2.0)

Akhenaten “bathing” in the solar light of Aten, the new god of ultimate stature in the radically unique Amarna period. (Hans Ollermann / CC BY 2.0 )

A Unique Art Style or Something Beyond Comprehension?

Another hard-to-accept change in society was the new and unique artistic style that was developed under close direction of Pharaoh Akhenaten. In general, art of Ancient Egypt was incredibly slow to change, often following the same style for centuries on end. Thus, the sudden and dramatic changes of the Amarna period were unlike anything seen before.

Suddenly, standard reliefs showed new activities on display. And quickly the reliefs of Akhenaten became more crowded and filled with details. Moreover, humans were portrayed in a more realistic fashion, with a more three-dimensional approach and with exaggerated features . In many ways, they were almost alien-looking, with their elongated heads, bulbous stomachs, and long limbs. The Sun Disc of Aten is present in almost all of these “new” reliefs and paintings.

Egyptian sculptures also became immensely different and bordered on completely alien human depictions. Most noticeable aspects of this can be observed on the many surviving sculptures and busts of Akhenaten himself, and his wife Nefertiti. Necks, faces, and skulls were dramatically elongated, the chin made prominent, and lips large and accentuated. The pharaoh is portrayed with extra high cheekbones, and unmistakably wide hips, thighs, and bottom. He is also portrayed with a noticeable paunch in the form of a fatty protruding belly. In simpler terms, he was portrayed as an almost alien-looking man. What is the reason for this?

Certain scholars argue that this sudden change in artistic style can be explained by an influx of “new people or groups of artists whose background and training were different from those of the classical Karnak sculptors.” It is possible that Akhenaten introduced foreign artists to achieve his artistic goals, although this theory has never been proven.

Other scholars, on the other hand, have drawn extreme and illogical conclusions, bringing actual extraterrestrials into the story, presenting Akhenaten’s alien portraiture as something utterly mysterious and inexplicable. But could the actual explanation be far simpler than this?

A relief portrait of Akhenaten from the Amarna period (circa 1345 BC) that reveals his unique facial features that seem almost "alien." (Keith Schengili-Roberts / CC BY-SA 3.0)

A relief portrait of Akhenaten from the Amarna period (circa 1345 BC) that reveals his unique facial features that seem almost "alien." (Keith Schengili-Roberts / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

A Dynastic Line Plagued By Genetic Deformities

Most scholars agree that these unique portrayals of the pharaoh and his family are due to genetic abnormalities and physical defects that he suffered from in life. Rather than accentuated and alien features of a unique art style, these changes might simply be an ultra-realistic portrayal of the ruler as he was. But how can a man suffer from a string of genetic defects, and still be a powerful ruler?

Well, in Ancient Egypt, this was not at all unusual. Pharaohs practiced marriage between siblings for centuries. Brothers married sisters, ensuring the purity of the dynastic lineage, and their offspring also inter-married. It was almost the norm. Of course, having offspring with your brother or sister, i.e., inbreeding, is completely unnatural, and it can cause a string of genetic deformities across generations. A classic example is the iconic “Habsburg Jaw.”

So, did Akhenaten look totally deformed and unnatural? It’s more than likely.

Many leading scientists and scholars cited a number of possible syndromes and disorders that could have troubled Akhenaten. Mandibular prognathism , the extreme protrusion of the lower jaw (best known as the “Habsburg Jaw”), could have been one of these, and the cause of the prominent chin portrayed on Akhenaten’s sculptures. Early researchers proposed Frölich's syndrome as a possibility. It is also known as Adiposogenital dystrophy , and causes enlarged breasts, thighs, paunch, and bottom in men, creating a look that is similar to that of Akhenaten. However, this theory has been largely dismissed since this syndrome usually causes sterility, but Akhenaten sired many children.

Marfan syndrome, a multi-systemic genetic disorder, is also a likely possibility. It causes a string of physical deformities but does not impair mental abilities or causes sterility. Those suffering from this rare syndrome develop an elongated and thin face, they grow extremely tall, they display an elongated skull, fingers, and arms; they have enlarged thighs and a larger pelvis, and a funnel chest. Many of these symptoms can be seen on Akhenaten’s odd sculptures. What is more, there is a 50% chance that people suffering from it can pass it onto their offspring. Interestingly, Akhenaten’s daughters are also portrayed with odd features, notably their elongated skulls.

Wooden standing statue of Akhenaten, currently in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin, that also shows how his body was different or depicted differently. (Miguel Hermoso Cuesta / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Wooden standing statue of Akhenaten, currently in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin, that also shows how his body was different or depicted differently. (Miguel Hermoso Cuesta / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

An Inbred Pharaoh Far From Perfection

Other scholars have proposed Gynecomastia, an imbalance of estrogen levels that causes enlarged breasts in men, while others put forward Craniosynostosis, a condition that causes deformities of the skull. Other possibilities include Sagittal Craniosynostosis syndrome, Aromatase Excess syndrome, or Klinefelter syndrome. Mental disabilities were also considered. Generations of inbreeding won’t cause only physical deformities, but mental ones as well. Schizophrenia, egomania, and similar conditions could have possibly afflicted Akhenaten.

To piece together the puzzle of Akhenaten’s odd looks, we need to follow his successors also. It is likely that he was the father of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun. The latter is famous today because of the discovery of his intact tomb, which is still the most sensational discovery in the world of Egyptology. However, it is likely that he was not extremely influential during his life and reign. What is more, modern research shows that Tutankhamun, who died when he was just 18, was plagued by a number of debilitating genetic diseases, and that he might have had a physical appearance similar to his father, Akhenaten.

Modern CT scans show that Tutankhamun had a physical disability in the form of a deformed left foot with bone necrosis, and that he was forced to use a cane at all times. Other finds indicate that he could have suffered from gynecomastia, Marfan syndrome, Antley-Bixler Syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Wilson–Turner X-linked intellectual disability syndrome, and several other serious defects. By all accounts, young pharaoh “Tut” was extremely frail and seriously deformed. Modern forensic reconstructions of his remains show him as such, in addition to sharing many of his father’s physical characteristics.

A bust of Akhenaten in the Luxor Museum, Egypt. (Paul Mannix / CC BY 2.0)

A bust of Akhenaten in the Luxor Museum, Egypt. (Paul Mannix / CC BY 2.0 )

A Grotesque Ruler With Ideas That Were Too Radical

Considering all these facts, and the advantages of modern medical science, we can safely stand behind the theory that Akhenaten, his offspring, and possibly his predecessors, all suffered from mild to severe genetic deformities, all caused by generations of inbreeding. While they believed that marrying brothers and sisters would ensure purity of the bloodlines, they were in fact polluting them, causing multiple hereditary congenital defects.

Akhenaten’s odd and controversial reign is hard to explain. He could have introduced the radical changes for political reasons, or he could have simply been a tyrannical monarch, plagued with physical and mental disorders and obsessed with the sun deity Aten.

After his death, all of his changes were reversed, and Egypt quickly returned to its old and established ways. Either way, there is no mistaking the alien-looking appearance present in all of Akhenaten’s depictions both in statues and reliefs. A realistic portrayal of a deformed pharaoh, or a unique and abstract art style? We may never know for certain.

Top image: Pharaoh Akhenaten in the center and his family worshiping Aten personified as the rays of a solar disk; later such imagery was prohibited. Source: Egyptian Museum / Public domain

By Aleksa Vučković

References

Asante, M. 2004. From Imhotep to Akhenaten: An Introduction to Egyptian Philosophers. Menaibuc.

Hoffmeier, J. K. 2015. Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism. Oxford University Press.

Hornung, E. 2001. Akhenaten and the Religion of Light. Cornell University Press.

Lowery, Z. and Thomas, S. 2016. Akhenaten and Tutankhamen. The Rosen Publishing Group.

Mark, J. J. 2014. Akhenaten. World History Encyclopedia. [Online] Available at: https://www.worldhistory.org/Akhenaten/

Montserrat, D. 2014. Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. Routledge.

Osman, A. 2002. Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus. Simon and Schuster.

Various. 2006. Akhenaten and Tutankhamun: Revolution and Restoration. UPenn Museum of Archeology.

Comments

Maybe he was an early form of body builder that chose to work on unusual parts of his body...

There's no doubting Akhenaten's attempted radical reworking of Ancient Egypt's religion and religious practice and the fact that he upset not only the religious norms, he also upset more than a few "people in High places" with his extremely radical ideas on what was and what wasn't the way to proceed with the somewhat elevated position of The Aten. This being a particular manifestation of the sun god. Amenhotep 3rd started the fascination and promotion of this, up 'til then, obscure and less noticed manifestation of the sun even naming a river barge after it. "The Aten Gleams" which he had built for his wife(?).
So, Akhenaten (Amenhotep 4th) took the ball and ran with it probably starting during the co-regency with his father. He also wanted and needed to make himself the singular conduit that had access to this God. The only one able to "commune". To that end, Akhenaten had to portray a really special persona. Different, original and unique to himself. He also had to be, like a God, all things to all people. Represental of both male and female in one body. Equally one to the other for himself, for his subjects and for The Aten. This is, where I believe, anyway, where the strange and compelling art style of The Amarna Period comes from. The exaggerated styling, the androgynous look, especially of Pharaoh and his immediate family. (to show an ongoing continuity of "Godliness" within the Royal Family). To give the impression of "being of his people but in a completely different way and existing and operating on a completely different level to the norm at the same time of being fully aware and omnipotently understanding of everything that was the norm. To truly be in a God like state of grace at all times. Any and all commune with The Aten could only be conducted through Akhenaten himself. Simply put, a religious fanatic and iconoclast answerable to no one except The Aten and completely devoted to himself and the family that would continue his philosophy. The art style and the religious ideas and practices, as far as we understand them, reflects this. It also explains how these beliefs alienated himself from all others and at an alarming rate. An self perpetually accelerating decent into a God like self. A type of self absorbed madness.a person who probably became more and more difficult to reach or even understand.
People have argued, some very convincingly, that Akhenaten was possibly the first monotheistic. In as much as he narrowed the religious pantheon down to The Aten. That all the other God's were just "characteristics" of The Aten, you can argue that point very well. However, that may have been the case on the ideas that Amenhotep 4th inherited and expanded on from his father, Amenhotep 3rd. But, did it become the case that Akhenaten came to believe that he and The Aten became one in the same. That Akhenaten existed on two different levels. One, as The Aten and the other as Akhenaten the King of Egypt. That, in effect, he held communion with himself, justifying himself to himself and, in the process, deifying himself????
Hence, after his death, he became an unspeakable monster. "The Great Criminal", "The Destroyer of Maat". The one whose name had to be obliterated from memory for the insult and damage he did to the Gods???
Personally, I don't really buy the idea that Akhenaten was a visionary monotheistic ahead of his time. Unquestionably his ideas were unique but, its said, there's a fine line between genius and madness. I think Akhenaten was clinically quite mad. But he was also a Pharaoh of Egypt. His name is remembered. Even some, if not most of his ideas have survived. This is what The Pharoahs desired most of all..... to live forever. Conversely, you could argue, that he was also forever damned. An enigma wrapped in an enigma.
One things for sure, he was certainly "different".

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The world makes little sense without the proverbial alien takeover.

Nobody gets paid to tell the truth.

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